Three-dimensional characterization of trabecular bone mineral density of the proximal ulna using quantitative computed tomography.
- 作者列表："Gil JA","DaSilva K","Johnson E","DaSilva MF","Pidgeon TS
BACKGROUND:Although previous studies have measured general proximal forearm bone mineral density (BMD), no study has systematically mapped the 3-dimensional trabecular BMD of the proximal ulna. The aim of this study was to describe the 3-dimensional distribution of the trabecular bone density of the proximal ulna. We hypothesize a variable distribution of proximal ulna trabecular BMD depending on the region of interest (ROI). METHODS:Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 9 fresh-frozen cadaveric proximal ulna specimens with a mean age of 59.3 ± 8.1 years were studied. Each CT file was converted from DICOM to a QCT file that could be analyzed using QCT software (QCT Pro Version 6.1, Model 4 CT Calibration Phantom; MindWays Software Inc, Austin, TX, USA). The ROIs were defined as spheres of trabecular bone 3 mm in diameter located throughout the proximal ulna. RESULTS:ROIs proximal to the trochlear notch demonstrated higher BMD than ROIs distal to the trochlear notch. Furthermore, volar ROIs adjacent to the ulnohumeral joint tended to have higher BMD than dorsal ROIs. The highest BMD was found in the tip of the olecranon. CONCLUSION:Hardware in fixation constructs for proximal ulnar fractures should be directed toward ROIs with the highest BMD to maximize purchase. Hardware should approach the ulnohumeral joint without penetrating the joint to capture trabecular bone with the highest BMD. The most important fixation in such a construct will be that which captures trabecular bone with maximum BMD proximal to the trochlear notch (eg, the tip of the olecranon).
背景: 虽然以前的研究已经测量了前臂近端的一般骨密度 (BMD)，但是还没有研究系统地绘制尺骨近端的三维骨小梁BMD。本研究的目的是描述尺骨近端骨小梁密度的三维分布。我们假设尺骨近侧小梁BMD的可变分布取决于感兴趣区域 (ROI)。 方法: 对平均年龄为59.3 ± 8.1岁的9例新鲜冷冻尸体尺骨近端标本进行CT扫描。每个CT文件从DICOM转换为QCT文件，该QCT文件可以使用QCT软件 (QCT Pro版本6.1，Model 4 ct校准幻影; MindWays software Inc，Austin，TX，USA) 进行分析。Roi被定义为位于整个尺骨近端的直径为3毫米毫米的骨小梁球。 结果: 接近滑车切迹的ROIs比接近滑车切迹的ROIs表现出更高的BMD。此外，与肱骨上端关节相邻的掌侧关节具有比背侧关节更高的BMD。在鹰嘴的尖端发现了最高的BMD。 结论: 近端尺骨骨折固定结构中的硬件应针对具有最高BMD的roi，以最大限度地购买。硬件应接近肱骨干关节，而不穿透关节，以捕获具有最高BMD的骨小梁。在这种结构中最重要的固定将是在滑车凹口 (例如，鹰嘴的尖端) 附近捕获具有最大BMD的骨小梁。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.