Age-Related Changes to the Three-Dimensional Full Shape of the Isolated Human Crystalline Lens.
- 作者列表："Martinez-Enriquez E","de Castro A","Mohamed A","Sravani NG","Ruggeri M","Manns F","Marcos S
Purpose:Studying the full shape crystalline lens geometry is important to understand the changes undergone by the crystalline lens leading to presbyopia, cataract, or failure of emmetropization, and to aid in the design and selection of intraocular lenses and new strategies for correction. We used custom-developed three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study age-related changes in the full shape of the isolated human crystalline lens. Methods:A total of 103 ex vivo human isolated lenses from 87 subjects (age range, 0-56 years) were imaged using a 3-D spectral-domain OCT system. Lens models, constructed after segmentation of the surfaces and distortion correction, were used to automatically quantify central geometric parameters (lens thickness, radii of curvatures, and asphericities of anterior and posterior surfaces) and full shape parameters (lens volume, surface area, diameter, and equatorial plane position). Age-dependencies of these parameters were studied. Results:Most of the measured parameters showed a biphasic behavior, statistically significantly increasing (radii of curvature, lens volume, surface area, diameter) or decreasing (asphericities, lens thickness) very fast in the first two decades of life, followed by a slow but significant increase after age 20 years (for all the parameters except for the posterior surface asphericity and the equatorial plane position, that remained constant). Conclusions:Three-dimensional quantitative OCT allowed us to study the age-dependency of geometric parameters of the full isolated human crystalline lens. We found that most of the lens geometric parameters showed a biphasic behavior, changing rapidly before age 20 years and with a slower linear growth thereafter.
目的: 研究全形状晶状体几何结构对于理解晶状体发生的变化导致老花眼、白内障或矫正失败，以及帮助人工晶状体的设计和选择以及矫正的新策略非常重要。我们使用定制开发的三维 (3-D) 定量光学相干断层扫描 (OCT) 来研究离体人晶状体全形状的年龄相关变化。 方法: 使用3-D谱域OCT系统对来自87名受试者 (年龄范围，0-56岁) 的总共103个离体人离体晶状体进行成像。在分割表面和畸变校正后构建的透镜模型用于自动量化中心几何参数 (透镜厚度、曲率半径以及前表面和后表面的非球面性) 和全形状参数 (透镜体积、表面面积、直径和赤道平面位置)。研究了这些参数的年龄依赖性。 结果: 大多数测量参数显示出双相行为，在生命的前20年中，统计学上显著增加 (曲率半径、晶状体体积、表面积、直径) 或降低 (非球面性、晶状体厚度) 非常快，然后在20岁后缓慢但显著增加(对于除后表面非球面性和赤道平面位置之外的所有参数，其保持恒定)。 结论: 三维定量OCT允许我们研究完全分离的人晶状体的几何参数的年龄依赖性。我们发现大多数晶状体几何参数表现出双相行为，在20岁之前快速变化，此后线性生长较慢。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.