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Three-dimensional assessment of facial asymmetry using dense correspondence, symmetry, and midline analysis.

使用密集对应、对称性和中线分析对面部不对称进行三维评估。

  • 影响因子:1.16
  • DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2019.12.014
  • 作者列表:"Lum V","Goonewardene MS","Mian A","Eastwood P
  • 发表时间:2020-07-01
Abstract

INTRODUCTION:It is considered normal for facial structures to exhibit mild asymmetry between left and right sides. An automated, landmark-independent method was developed to accurately assess and quantify facial asymmetry in 3 planes of space and describe a midline deviation of each subject and ultimately establish thresholds of significance. METHODS:The subjects were 279 healthy young Western Australian white adults (134 females and 145 males) with a mean age 22.17 years ± 0.63, (minimum 20.58 years-maximum 24.42 years) without craniofacial anomalies. They were randomly selected from participants in the Raine Study-Generation 2. Surface facial images were obtained using a 3dMDface scanning system (3dMD Inc, Atlanta, Ga). Images were standardized using the dense correspondence technique. An automated landmark detection method was applied, and measurements performed on color deviation maps to quantitatively assess facial asymmetry. RESULTS:Based on asymmetrical projections over the total facial surface area, the proportion of female and males with moderate asymmetry (2-5 mm) was 52.3% and 58.4%, respectively, and with severe asymmetry (>5 mm) was 7.1% and 7.7%, respectively. Most asymmetry occurred in the coronal plane (x-axis), followed by the transverse plane (z-axis) and the least asymmetry in the sagittal plane (y-axis). Males were statistically more asymmetrical (P <0.05) in the coronal and transverse planes (males: coronal 36.5%, transverse 15.2%; females: coronal 31.8%, transverse 12.3%). The midline was deviated to the right in all females and in all but 1 male subject. CONCLUSIONS:This study presents an automated, rapid and accurate method of assessing 3-dimensional facial asymmetry (using symmetry and midline analyses). Analyses revealed that >50% of the faces of young adults are >2 mm asymmetrical, based on total facial surface area.

摘要

简介: 面部结构表现出左右两侧轻度不对称被认为是正常的。开发了一种自动的、与界标无关的方法,以准确评估和量化3个空间平面中的面部不对称,并描述每个受试者的中线偏差,最终建立显著性阈值。 方法: 研究对象为279名健康年轻的西澳大利亚白人成年人 (134名女性和145名男性),平均年龄22.17岁 ± 0.63岁 (最小20.58岁-最大24.42岁),无颅面异常。他们是从第2代Raine研究的参与者中随机选择的。使用3dmdface扫描系统 (3dMD Inc,亚特兰大,Ga) 获得表面面部图像。使用密集对应技术对图像进行标准化。应用自动界标检测方法,并在颜色偏差图上进行测量以定量评估面部不对称性。 结果: 基于面部总表面积的不对称投影,女性和男性中度不对称 (2-5毫米) 的比例分别为52.3% 和58.4%,重度不对称 (> 5毫米) 的比例分别为7.1% 和7.7%。大多数不对称发生在冠状平面 (x轴),其次是横向平面 (z轴) 和矢状平面 (y轴) 中的最小不对称。男性在冠状面和横向面统计上更加不对称 (P <0.05) (男性: 冠状面36.5%,横向15.2%; 女性: 冠状面31.8%,横向12.3%)。在所有女性和除1名男性受试者之外的所有受试者中,中线偏右。 结论: 本研究提出了一种自动,快速和准确的评估三维面部不对称的方法 (使用对称性和中线分析)。分析显示,基于总面部表面积,> 50% 的年轻人面部> 2毫米不对称。

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影响因子:2.98
发表时间:2020-01-01
DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-014962
作者列表:["Guo W","Liu H","Tan Z","Zhang X","Gao J","Zhang L","Guo H","Bai H","Cui W","Liu X","Wu X","Luo J","Qu Y"]

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