Skeleton optimization of neuronal morphology based on three-dimensional shape restrictions.
- 作者列表："Jiang S","Pan Z","Feng Z","Guan Y","Ren M","Ding Z","Chen S","Gong H","Luo Q","Li A
BACKGROUND:Neurons are the basic structural unit of the brain, and their morphology is a key determinant of their classification. The morphology of a neuronal circuit is a fundamental component in neuron modeling. Recently, single-neuron morphologies of the whole brain have been used in many studies. The correctness and completeness of semimanually traced neuronal morphology are credible. However, there are some inaccuracies in semimanual tracing results. The distance between consecutive nodes marked by humans is very long, spanning multiple voxels. On the other hand, the nodes are marked around the centerline of the neuronal fiber, not on the centerline. Although these inaccuracies do not seriously affect the projection patterns that these studies focus on, they reduce the accuracy of the traced neuronal skeletons. These small inaccuracies will introduce deviations into subsequent studies that are based on neuronal morphology files. RESULTS:We propose a neuronal digital skeleton optimization method to evaluate and make fine adjustments to a digital skeleton after neuron tracing. Provided that the neuronal fiber shape is smooth and continuous, we describe its physical properties according to two shape restrictions. One restriction is designed based on the grayscale image, and the other is designed based on geometry. These two restrictions are designed to finely adjust the digital skeleton points to the neuronal fiber centerline. With this method, we design the three-dimensional shape restriction workflow of neuronal skeleton adjustment computation. The performance of the proposed method has been quantitatively evaluated using synthetic and real neuronal image data. The results show that our method can reduce the difference between the traced neuronal skeleton and the centerline of the neuronal fiber. Furthermore, morphology metrics such as the neuronal fiber length and radius become more precise. CONCLUSIONS:This method can improve the accuracy of a neuronal digital skeleton based on traced results. The greater the accuracy of the digital skeletons that are acquired, the more precise the neuronal morphologies that are analyzed will be.
背景: 神经元是大脑的基本结构单位，其形态是其分类的关键决定因素。神经元回路的形态是神经元建模的基本组成部分。最近，全脑的单神经元形态已被用于许多研究。半语言追踪神经元形态的正确性和完整性是可信的。然而，在半手动追踪结果中存在一些不准确之处。由人类标记的连续节点之间的距离非常长，跨越多个体素。另一方面，节点标记在神经元纤维的中心线周围，而不是中心线上。虽然这些不准确性不会严重影响这些研究关注的投影模式，但它们降低了追踪的神经元骨架的准确性。这些小的不准确性将在基于神经元形态学文件的后续研究中引入偏差。 结果: 我们提出了一种神经元数字骨架优化方法，对神经元追踪后的数字骨架进行评估和微调。假设神经元纤维形状是光滑和连续的，我们根据两个形状限制描述其物理性质。一个限制是基于灰度图像设计的，另一个是基于几何设计的。这两个限制被设计为精细地调整数字骨架指向神经元纤维中心线。利用该方法，设计了神经元骨架调整计算的三维形状限制工作流。所提出的方法的性能已经使用合成和真实的神经元图像数据进行了定量评估。结果表明，我们的方法可以减少追踪的神经元骨架和神经元纤维中心线之间的差异。此外，诸如神经元纤维长度和半径的形态学度量变得更加精确。 结论: 该方法可以提高基于追踪结果的神经元数字骨架的准确性。获得的数字骨架的准确度越高，所分析的神经元形态将越精确。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.