Scatter Correction Based on GPU-Accelerated Full Monte Carlo Simulation for Brain PET/MRI.
- 作者列表："Ma B","Gaens M","Caldeira L","Bert J","Lohmann P","Tellmann L","Lerche C","Scheins J","Rota Kops E","Xu H","Lenz M","Pietrzyk U","Shah NJ
:Accurate scatter correction is essential for qualitative and quantitative PET imaging. Until now, scatter correction based on Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) has been recognized as the most accurate method of scatter correction for PET. However, the major disadvantage of MCS is its long computational time, which makes it unfeasible for clinical usage. Meanwhile, single scatter simulation (SSS) is the most widely used method for scatter correction. Nevertheless, SSS has the disadvantage of limited robustness for dynamic measurements and for the measurement of large objects. In this work, a newly developed implementation of MCS using graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration is employed, allowing full MCS-based scatter correction in clinical 3D brain PET imaging. Starting from the generation of annihilation photons to their detection in the simulated PET scanner, all relevant physical interactions and transport phenomena of the photons were simulated on GPUs. This resulted in an expected distribution of scattered events, which was subsequently used to correct the measured emission data. The accuracy of the approach was validated with simulations using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomography Emission), and its performance was compared to SSS. The comparison of the computation time between a GPU and a single-threaded CPU showed an acceleration factor of 776 for a voxelized brain phantom study. The speedup of the MCS implemented on the GPU represents a major step toward the application of the more accurate MCS-based scatter correction for PET imaging in clinical routine.
: 准确的散射校正对于定性和定量PET成像至关重要。到目前为止，基于蒙特卡罗模拟 (MCS) 的散射校正已经被认为是用于PET的最精确的散射校正方法。然而，MCS的主要缺点是其计算时间长，这使得其对于临床使用不可行。同时，单散射模拟 (SSS) 是最广泛使用的散射校正方法。然而，SSS具有对于动态测量和对于大物体的测量的鲁棒性有限的缺点。在这项工作中，采用了使用图形处理单元 (GPU) 加速的MCS的新开发的实现，允许在临床3D脑PET成像中进行完全的基于MCS的散射校正。从湮灭光子的产生到它们在模拟PET扫描仪中的探测，在gpu上模拟了光子的所有相关物理相互作用和输运现象。这导致散射事件的预期分布，其随后用于校正测量的发射数据。通过使用GATE (用于层析成像发射的Geant4应用) 的模拟验证了该方法的准确性，并将其性能与SSS进行了比较。GPU和单线程CPU之间的计算时间的比较显示，对于体素化脑体模研究，加速因子为776。在GPU上实现的MCS的加速代表了在临床常规中对PET成像应用更精确的基于MCS的散射校正的主要步骤。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.