Automated Deformation-Based Analysis of 3D Optical Coherence Tomography in Diabetic Retinopathy.
- 作者列表："Khansari MM","Zhang J","Qiao Y","Gahm JK","Sarabi MS","Kashani AH","Shi Y
:Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a significant microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and a leading cause of vision impairment in working age adults. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a routinely used clinical tool to observe retinal structural and thickness alterations in DR. Pathological changes that alter the normal anatomy of the retina, such as intraretinal edema, pose great challenges for conventional layer-based analysis of OCT images. We present an alternative approach for the automated analysis of OCT volumes in DR research based on nonlinear registration. In this paper, we first obtain an anatomically consistent volume of interest (VOI) in different OCT images via carefully designed masking and affine registration. After that, efficient B-spline transformations are computed using stochastic gradient descent optimization. Using the OCT volumes of normal controls, for which layer-based segmentation works well, we demonstrate the accuracy of our registration-based analysis in aligning layer boundaries. By nonlinearly registering the OCT volumes of DR subjects to an atlas constructed from normal controls and measuring the Jacobian determinant of the deformation, we can simultaneously visualize tissue contraction and expansion due to DR pathology. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) can also be performed for quantitative analysis of local structural changes. In our experimental results, we apply our method to a dataset of 105 subjects and demonstrate that volumetric OCT registration and TBM analysis can successfully detect local retinal structural alterations due to DR.
: 糖尿病性视网膜病变 (DR) 是糖尿病的重要微血管并发症，也是工作年龄成人视力损害的主要原因。光学相干断层扫描 (OCT) 是一种常规使用的临床工具，用于观察DR的视网膜结构和厚度变化。改变视网膜正常解剖结构的病理变化，如视网膜内水肿，对传统的基于层的OCT图像分析提出了巨大挑战。我们提出了一种基于非线性配准的DR研究中OCT体积自动分析的替代方法。在本文中，我们首先通过精心设计的掩蔽和仿射配准在不同的OCT图像中获得解剖学上一致的感兴趣体积 (VOI)。然后，使用随机梯度下降优化计算有效的b样条变换。使用基于层的分割效果良好的正常对照的OCT体积，我们证明了我们的基于配准的分析在对齐层边界方面的准确性。通过将DR受试者的OCT体积非线性地配准到由正常对照构建的图谱中，并测量变形的雅可比决定因素，我们可以同时可视化由于DR病理引起的组织收缩和扩张。基于张量的形态测量法 (TBM) 也可以用于局部结构变化的定量分析。在我们的实验结果中，我们将我们的方法应用于105名受试者的数据集，并证明体积OCT配准和TBM分析可以成功检测由于DR引起的局部视网膜结构改变。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.