The reliability and reproducibility of sagittal spinal curvature measurement using the Microsoft Kinect V2.
使用Microsoft Kinect v2测量矢状位脊柱曲率的可靠性和再现性。
- 作者列表："Hannink E","Shannon T","Barker KL","Dawes H
BACKGROUND:Abnormal sagittal spinal curvature is associated with pain, decreased mobility, respiratory problems and increased mortality. Time-of-flight technology of the Microsoft Kinect sensor can reconstruct a three-dimensional image of the back quickly and inexpensively. OBJECTIVE:To estimate the extent of the reproducibility of sagittal spine curvature measurement using the Microsoft Kinect sensor. METHODS:Simultaneous measurement of thoracic and lumbar spine using the Microsoft Kinect sensor in 37 participants. Two investigators gave standardised instructions and each captured 3 images. Thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angle indexes were calculated using maximum height divided by the length. RESULTS:Adult participants (mean age in years (SD) = 51.7 (20.6); 57% female; BMI in kg/m2 (SD) = 24.9 (3.3)) kyphosis and lordosis indexes showed high intra-rater and inter-rater ICC values (0.960-0.973). The means of the first images from both raters had significantly larger kyphosis indexes compared to the second and third images, yet no difference between means in lordosis data. CONCLUSIONS:The results indicate that the Microsoft Kinect sensor has a reproducible method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. The difference between the means over repeated measures suggest the second image capture is more consistent. It is a reproducible and quick method in clinical and research settings.
背景: 脊柱矢状弯曲异常与疼痛、活动能力下降、呼吸问题和死亡率增加有关。微软Kinect传感器的飞行时间技术可以快速廉价地重建背部的三维图像。 目的: 评估使用微软Kinect传感器测量矢状位脊柱曲率的再现性程度。 方法: 使用微软Kinect传感器同时测量37名参与者的胸椎和腰椎。两名调查人员给出了标准化的说明，每人拍摄了3张图像。使用最大高度除以长度计算胸椎后凸和腰椎前凸角指数。 结果: 成年参与者 (平均年龄 (SD) = 51.7 (20.6); 57% 为女性; BMI (kg/m2) (SD) = 24.9 (3.3)) 脊柱后凸和脊柱前凸指数显示出较高的评分者内和评分者间ICC值 (0.960-0.973)。与第二和第三图像相比，来自两个评分者的第一图像的平均值具有显著更大的后凸指数，然而在脊柱前凸数据中的平均值之间没有差异。 结论: 结果表明，Microsoft Kinect传感器具有可重复的方法，具有较高的评分者内和评分者间可靠性。平均值与重复测量之间的差异表明第二次图像捕获更加一致。它是一种可重复的和快速的方法在临床和研究设置。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.