kVp, mA, and voxel size effect on 3D voxel-based superimposition.
- 作者列表："Eliliwi M","Bazina M","Palomo JM
OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effect of changing kVp, mA, and voxel size on the accuracy of voxel-based superimposition on the anterior cranial base. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were taken on a phantom skull using different kVp, mA, and voxel size combinations. CBCT scans were superimposed using commercially available software. Two separate open-source software programs were used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) color map objective assessment of the differences in seven different regions: Nasion, Point A, Zygomatic (right and left), Point B, and Gonial (right and left). Each region had around 200 points that were used to calculate the mean differences between the superimpositions. RESULTS:Intraclass correlation showed excellent reliability (0.95). Lowering the kVp made the biggest difference, showing an average discrepancy of 0.7 ± 0.3 mm, and a high mean of 1.4 ± 0.3 in the Right Gonial region. Lowering the mA showed less of a discrepancy, with an average of 0.373 ± 0.2 mm, and the highest discrepancy, also on the Right Gonial Area, of 0.7 ± 0.1 mm. The voxel size had the least impact on the accuracy of registered volumes, with mean discrepancy values of less than 0.2 mm. CONCLUSIONS:Using different CBCT settings can affect the accuracy of the voxel-based superimposition method. This is particularly the case when using low kVp values, while changes in mA or voxel sizes did not significantly interfere with the superimposition outcome.
目的: 评估改变kVp、mA和体素大小对基于体素的前颅底叠加准确性的影响。 材料和方法: 使用不同的kVp、mA和体素大小组合在幻影颅骨上进行锥形束计算机断层扫描 (CBCT)。使用市售软件叠加CBCT扫描。使用两个单独的开源软件程序来生成三维 (3D) 彩色地图，客观评估七个不同区域的差异: Nasion、a点、颧骨 (右和左) 、B点和前角 (右和左)。每个区域有大约200个点，用于计算叠加之间的平均差异。 结果: 组内相关显示出良好的可靠性 (0.95)。降低kVp产生最大的差异，显示平均差异为0.7 ± 0.3毫米，并且在右侧性腺区域的高平均值为1.4 ± 0.3。降低mA显示出较少的差异，平均为0.373 ± 0.2毫米，最高的差异，同样在右侧的角部区域，为0.7 ± 0.1毫米。体素大小对登记体积的准确性影响最小，平均差异值小于0.2毫米。 结论: 使用不同的CBCT设置会影响基于体素的叠加方法的准确性。当使用低kVp值时尤其如此，而mA或体素大小的变化不会显著干扰叠加结果。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.