Soft tissue deformation tracking by means of an optimized fiducial marker layout with application to cancer tumors.
- 作者列表："Han Y","Rabin Y","Kara LB
OBJECTIVE:Interventional radiology methods have been adopted for intraoperative control of the surgical region of interest (ROI) in a wide range of minimally invasive procedures. One major obstacle that hinders the success of procedures using interventional radiology methods is the preoperative and intraoperative deformation of the ROI. While fiducial markers (FM) tracing has been shown to be promising in tracking such deformations, determining the optimal placement of the FM in the ROI remains a significant challenge. The current study proposes a computational framework to address this problem by preoperatively optimizing the layout of FM, thereby enabling an accurate tracking of the ROI deformations. METHODS:The proposed approach includes three main components: (1) creation of virtual deformation benchmarks, (2) method of predicting intraoperative tissue deformation based on FM registration, and (3) FM layout optimization. To account for the large variety of potential ROI deformations, virtual benchmarks are created by applying a multitude of random force fields on the tumor surface in physically based simulations. The ROI deformation prediction is carried out by solving the inverse problem of finding the smoothest force field that leads to the observed FM displacements. Based on this formulation, a simulated annealing approach is employed to optimize the FM layout that produces the best prediction accuracy. RESULTS:The proposed approach is capable of finding an FM layout that outperforms the rationally chosen layouts by 40% in terms of ROI prediction accuracy. For a maximum induced displacement of 20 mm on the tumor surface, the average maximum error between the benchmarks and our FM-optimized predictions is about 1.72 mm, which falls within the typical resolution of ultrasound imaging. CONCLUSIONS:The proposed framework can optimize FM layout to effectively reduce the errors in the intraoperative deformation prediction process, thus bridging the gap between preoperative imaging and intraoperative tissue deformation.
目的: 在广泛的微创手术中，介入放射学方法已被用于手术感兴趣区域 (ROI) 的术中控制。阻碍使用介入放射学方法的手术成功的一个主要障碍是ROI的术前和术中变形。虽然已显示基准标记 (FM) 跟踪在跟踪这样的变形中是有希望的，但是确定FM在ROI中的最佳放置仍然是一个重大挑战。目前的研究提出了一种计算框架，通过术前优化FM的布局来解决这个问题，从而能够精确跟踪ROI变形。 方法: 所提出的方法包括三个主要部分 :( 1) 创建虚拟变形基准，(2) 基于FM配准预测术中组织变形的方法，以及 (3) FM布局优化。为了解释大量潜在的ROI变形，通过在基于物理的模拟中在肿瘤表面上应用多个随机力场来创建虚拟基准。通过求解找到导致观察到的FM位移的最平滑力场的逆问题来执行ROI变形预测。基于该公式，采用模拟退火方法来优化产生最佳预测精度的FM布局。 结果: 所提出的方法能够找到在ROI预测精度方面优于合理选择的布局40% 的FM布局。对于肿瘤表面上20毫米的最大诱导位移，基准和我们的FM优化预测之间的平均最大误差约为1.72毫米，其落在超声成像的典型分辨率内。 结论: 所提出的框架可以优化FM布局，有效减少术中变形预测过程中的误差，从而弥合术前成像与术中组织变形之间的差距。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.