Optimizing 4D abdominal MRI: image denoising using an iterative back-projection approach.
- 作者列表："de Senneville BD","Cardiet CR","Trotier AJ","Ribot EJ","Lafitte L","Facq L","Miraux S
:4D-MRI is a promising tool for organ exploration, target delineation and treatment planning. Intra-scan motion artifacts may be greatly reduced by increasing the imaging frame rate. However, poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) are observed when increasing spatial and/or frame number per physiological cycle, in particular in the abdomen. In the current work, the proposed 4D-MRI method favored spatial resolution, frame number, isotropic voxels and large field-of-view (FOV) during MR-acquisition. The consequential SNR penalty in the reconstructed data is addressed retrospectively using an iterative back-projection (IBP) algorithm. Practically, after computing individual spatial 3D deformations present in the images using a deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm, each 3D image is individually enhanced by fusing several successive frames in its local temporal neighborood, these latter being likely to cover common independent informations. A tuning parameter allows one to freely readjust the balance between temporal resolution and precision of the 4D-MRI. The benefit of the method was quantitatively evaluated on the thorax of 6 mice under free breathing using a clinically acceptable duration. Improved 4D cardiac imaging was also shown in the heart of 1 mice. Obtained results are compared to theoretical expectations and discussed. The proposed implementation is easily parallelizable and optimized 4D-MRI could thereby be obtained with a clinically acceptable duration.
: 4D-MRI是器官探查、靶区勾画和治疗计划的有前途的工具。通过增加成像帧速率，可以大大减少扫描内运动伪影。然而，当每个生理周期增加空间和/或帧数时，尤其是在腹部中，观察到差的信噪比 (SNR)。在目前的工作中，所提出的4D-MRI方法在MR采集期间有利于空间分辨率、帧数、各向同性体素和大视场 (FOV)。使用迭代反投影 (IBP) 算法回顾性地解决重建数据中的后续SNR惩罚。实际上，在使用可变形图像配准 (DIR) 算法计算图像中存在的单个空间3D变形之后，通过融合其局部时间邻居中的几个连续帧来单独增强每个3D图像，这些后者可能覆盖共同的独立信息。调谐参数允许人们自由地重新调整4D-MRI的时间分辨率和精度之间的平衡。使用临床上可接受的持续时间在自由呼吸下对6只小鼠的胸部定量评价该方法的益处。在1只小鼠的心脏中也显示了改进的4D心脏成像。所得结果与理论预期进行了比较和讨论。所提出的实施方式易于并行化，因此可以以临床上可接受的持续时间获得优化的4D-MRI。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.