3D-printed models and virtual reality as new tools for image-guided robot-assisted nephron-sparing surgery: a systematic review of the newest evidences.
- 作者列表："Checcucci E","De Cillis S","Porpiglia F
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Nowadays, kidney cancer surgery has been focusing on a patient-tailored management, expanding the indication to nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Starting from computer tomography images, 3D models can be created, allowing a never experienced before understanding of surgical anatomy. Once obtained the models can be printed or virtually visualized with the aid to assist the surgeon in preoperative planning and simulation or intraoperative navigation. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the preoperative and intraoperative impact of 3D printed and virtual imaging for robotic NSS. RECENT FINDINGS:Ten articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria and reviewed. An 'intermediate' score was assessed to the overall articles' quality. A moderate/high risk of bias was recorded for all the studies. SUMMARY:3D-printed models were considered to be more useful during both preoperative simulations and patients' counseling. These models guaranteed a better comprehension of anatomical structures and surgical procedure. Costs and quality of the materials available represent the two main limits of this developing technology.Instead, in a virtual reality setting the preoperative planning was enhanced by using 3D virtual models in a mixed reality environment. Intraoperatively, the possibility to overlap the 3D model to real anatomy allowed augmented reality procedures. This technology is still a 'newborn' and is constantly evolving, expanding day by day the range of its potential applications.
综述目的: 如今，肾癌手术一直专注于患者定制的管理，将适应症扩大到保留肾单位的手术 (NSS)。从计算机断层扫描图像开始，可以创建3D模型，允许从未经历过的手术解剖结构。一旦获得，可以在辅助下打印或虚拟地可视化模型，以辅助外科医生进行术前规划和模拟或术中导航。本系统综述的目的是评估机器人NSS的3D打印和虚拟成像的术前和术中影响。 最近的发现: 发现10篇文章符合纳入标准，并进行了审查。对整体文章质量进行 “中间” 评分评估。记录所有研究的中度/高度偏倚风险。 总结: 3d打印模型被认为在术前模拟和患者咨询中更有用。这些模型保证了对解剖结构和手术过程的更好理解。可用材料的成本和质量代表了这一发展技术的两个主要限制。相反，在虚拟现实环境中，通过在混合现实环境中使用3D虚拟模型来增强术前规划。在手术中，将3D模型与真实解剖重叠的可能性允许增强现实程序。这项技术仍然是一个 “新手”，并且正在不断发展，日益扩大其潜在应用范围。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.