Automatic volumetry of cerebrospinal fluid and brain volume in severe paediatric hydrocephalus, implementation and clinical course after intervention.
- 作者列表："Grimm F","Edl F","Gugel I","Kerscher SR","Bender B","Schuhmann MU
BACKGROUND:In childhood hydrocephalus, both the amount of cerebrospinal fluid and the brain volume are relevant for the prognosis of the development and for therapy monitoring. Since classical planar measurements of ventricular size are subject to strong limitations, imprecise and neglect brain volume, 3D volumetry is most desirable. We used and evaluated the robust segmentation algorithms of the freely available FSL-toolbox in paediatric hydrocephalus patients before and after specific therapy. METHODS:Retrospectively 76 pre- and postoperative high-resolution T2-weighted MRI sequences (true FISP, 1 mm isovoxel) were analyzed in 38 patients with paediatric hydrocephalus (mean 4.4 ± 5.1 years) who underwent surgical treatment (ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt n = 22, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) n = 16). After preprocessing, the 3D-datasets were skull stripped to estimate the inner skull surface. Following, a 2 class segmentation into different tissue types (brain matter and CSF) was performed. The volumes of CSF and brain were calculated. RESULTS:The method could be implemented in an automated fashion in all 76 MRIs. In the VP shunt cohort, the amount of CSF (p < 0.001) decreased. Consecutively brain volume increased significantly (p < 0.001). Following ETV, CSF volume (p = 0.019) decreased significantly (p = 0.012) although the reduction was less pronounced than after shunt implantation. Brain volume expanded (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION:A reliable automated segmentation of CSF and brain could be performed with the implemented algorithm. The method was able to track changes after therapy and detected significant differences in CSF and brain volumes after shunting and after ETV.
背景: 在儿童脑积水中，脑脊髓液的量和脑容量与发育的预后和治疗监测相关。由于心室大小的经典平面测量受到强烈的限制、不精确和忽视脑体积，因此3D体积测量是最理想的。我们在儿童脑积水患者特定治疗前后使用并评估了免费FSL工具箱的稳健分割算法。 方法: 回顾性分析了38例接受手术治疗的儿童脑积水患者 (平均1毫米 ± 4.4岁) 的76个术前和术后高分辨率T2-weighted MRI序列 (真FISP，5.1等体素) (脑室-腹腔 (VP) 分流术n = 22，内镜第三脑室造瘘术 (ETV)) n = 16)。预处理后，对3d数据集进行颅骨剥离以估计内颅骨表面。随后，进行2类分割成不同的组织类型 (脑物质和CSF)。计算CSF和脑的体积。 结果: 该方法可以在所有76个mri中以自动化方式实现。在VP分流队列中，CSF的量 (p < 0.001) 减少。连续脑容量显著增加 (p <0.001)。ETV后，CSF体积 (p = 0.019) 显著降低 (p = 0.012)，尽管降低不如分流植入后明显。脑体积扩大 (p = 0.02)。 结论: 所实现的算法可以对CSF和脑进行可靠的自动分割。该方法能够跟踪治疗后的变化，并在分流后和ETV后检测到CSF和脑体积的显着差异。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.