Easy anchoring and smaller skin incision procedure for neuronavigation-based frameless stereoelectroencephalography.
- 作者列表："Fujimoto A","Sakakura K","Ichikawa N","Okanishi T
:Epilepsy surgery uses both depth electrodes (DEs) and subdural electrodes (SE). DEs have mainly been developed and used in Europe. As we are able to use the DEs safely due to the current advanced level of technology, use of DEs has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Unlike placement of SEs, which simply requires craniotomy, DE placement generally requires stereotactic techniques such as frame-based stereotactic or robotic arm-based methods. However, such methods are not always available at every epilepsy center. We therefore invented guide pipes for accurate DE placement. With this guide pipe and neuronavigation-based (NB) DE placement system, we are able to place DEs accurately. However, the disadvantages of our original procedure were a relatively large skin incision and the difficulty in anchoring DEs. The purpose of this technical note is to introduce a method to perform NB DE placement with a smaller skin incision and simple anchoring procedure. As we could make the skin incision smaller and achieved easier anchoring of DEs using a titanium plate, we hope this procedure will help facilities to perform DE placement with neuronavigation systems.
: 癫痫手术同时使用深度电极 (DEs) 和硬膜下电极 (SE)。DEs主要在欧洲开发和使用。由于目前先进的技术水平，我们能够安全地使用DEs，在过去十年中，DEs的使用迅速增加。与仅需要开颅手术的SEs放置不同，去放置通常需要立体定向技术，例如基于框架的立体定向或基于机器人臂的方法。然而，这些方法并不总是在每个癫痫中心可用。因此，我们发明了用于精确放置的导向管。有了这个导管和基于神经导航 (NB) 的DE放置系统，我们能够准确地放置DEs。然而，我们最初手术的缺点是相对较大的皮肤切口和固定DEs的困难。本技术说明的目的是介绍一种用较小的皮肤切口和简单的锚固程序进行NB DE放置的方法。由于我们可以使用钛板使皮肤切口更小并实现DEs的更容易锚固，我们希望该程序将有助于使用神经导航系统进行DE放置的设施。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.