Structural and Volumetric Brain MRI Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.
- 作者列表："Patel JB","Wilson SH","Oakes TR","Santhanam P","Weaver LK
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Routine MR imaging findings are frequently normal following mild traumatic brain injury and have a limited role in diagnosis and management. Advanced MR imaging can assist in detecting pathology and prognostication but is not readily available outside research settings. However, 3D isotropic sequences with ∼1-mm3 voxel size are available on community MR imaging scanners. Using such sequences, we compared radiologists' findings and quantified regional brain volumes between a mild traumatic brain injury cohort and non-brain-injured controls to describe structural imaging findings associated with mild traumatic brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Seventy-one military personnel with persistent symptoms and 75 controls underwent 3T MR imaging. Three neuroradiologists interpreted the scans using common data elements. FreeSurfer was used to quantify regional gray and white matter volumes. RESULTS:WM hyperintensities were seen in 81% of the brain-injured group versus 60% of healthy controls. The odds of ≥1 WM hyperintensity in the brain-injured group was about 3.5 times the odds for healthy controls (95% CI, 1.58-7.72; P = .002) after adjustment for age. A frontal lobe-only distribution of WM hyperintensities was more commonly seen in the mild traumatic brain injury cohort. Furthermore, 7 gray matter, 1 white matter, and 2 subcortical gray matter regions demonstrated decreased volumes in the brain-injured group after multiple-comparison correction. The mild traumatic brain injury cohort showed regional parenchymal volume loss. CONCLUSIONS:White matter findings are nonspecific and therefore a clinical challenge. Our results suggest that prior trauma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multifocal white matter abnormalities with a clinical history of mild traumatic brain injury, particularly when a frontal predilection is observed.
背景和目的: 轻度创伤性脑损伤后常规mri表现通常正常，在诊断和治疗中的作用有限。先进的MR成像可以帮助检测病理和预后，但在研究环境之外并不容易获得。然而，具有 ∼ 1-mm3体素大小的3D各向同性序列可在社区MR成像扫描仪上获得。使用这些序列，我们比较了放射科医生的发现，并在轻度创伤性脑损伤队列和非脑损伤对照之间定量了区域脑容量，以描述与轻度创伤性脑损伤相关的结构成像结果。 材料和方法: 71名有持续症状的军人和75名对照者接受了3T MR成像。三位神经放射学家使用共同的数据元素解释扫描。FreeSurfer用于定量区域灰质和白质体积。 结果: 在脑损伤组中观察到81% 的WM高信号，而健康对照组为60%。校正年龄后，脑损伤组中 ≥ 1 WM高信号的几率约为健康对照组的3.5倍 (95% CI，1.58-7.72; P = .002)。仅额叶分布的WM高信号在轻度创伤性脑损伤队列中更常见。此外，在多重比较校正后，脑损伤组中7个灰质、1个白质和2个皮质下灰质区域显示体积减少。轻度创伤性脑损伤队列显示局部实质体积丢失。 结论: 白质的发现是非特异性的，因此是一个临床挑战。我们的结果表明，在有轻度创伤性脑损伤临床病史的多灶性脑白质异常的鉴别诊断疾病，尤其是当观察到额叶好发时，应考虑既往创伤。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.