Estimating age-related changes in in vivo cerebral magnetic resonance angiography using convolutional neural network.
- 作者列表："Nam Y","Jang J","Lee HY","Choi Y","Shin NY","Ryu KH","Kim DH","Jung SL","Ahn KJ","Kim BS
:Although age-related changes of cerebral arteries were observed in in vivo magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), standard tools or methods measuring those changes were limited. In this study, we developed and evaluated a model to measure age-related changes in the cerebral arteries from 3D MRA using a 3D deep convolutional neural network. From participants without any medical abnormality, training (n = 800) and validation sets (n = 88) of 3D MRA were built. After preprocessing and data augmentation, a 3D convolutional neural network was trained to estimate each subject's chronological age from in vivo MRA data. There was good correlation between chronological age and predicted age (r = 0.83) in an independent test set (n = 354). The predicted age difference (PAD) of the test set was 2.41 ± 6.22. Interaction term between age and sex was significant for PAD (p = 0.008). After correcting for age and interaction term, men showed higher PAD (p < 0.001). Hypertension was associated with higher PAD with marginal significance (p = 0.073). We suggested that PAD might be a potential measurement of cerebral vascular aging.
: 虽然在体内磁共振血管造影 (MRA) 中观察到脑动脉的年龄相关变化，但是测量这些变化的标准工具或方法是有限的。在这项研究中，我们开发并评估了一个模型，使用3D深度卷积神经网络从3D MRA测量脑动脉的年龄相关变化。从没有任何医疗异常的参与者，构建3D MRA的训练 (n = 800) 和验证集 (n = 88)。在预处理和数据增强之后，训练3D卷积神经网络以从体内MRA数据估计每个受试者的实足年龄。在独立的测试集 (n = 0.83) 中，实足年龄和预测年龄之间存在良好的相关性 (r = 354)。测试集的预测年龄差异 (PAD) 为2.41 ± 6.22。年龄和性别之间的交互项对于PAD是显著的 (p = 0.008)。校正年龄和交互项后，男性表现出更高的PAD (p <0.001)。高血压与较高的PAD相关，具有边缘显著性 (p = 0.073)。我们认为PAD可能是脑血管老化的潜在测量指标。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.