Combining Augmented Reality and 3D Printing to Display Patient Models on a Smartphone.
- 作者列表："Moreta-Martinez R","García-Mato D","García-Sevilla M","Pérez-Mañanes R","Calvo-Haro JA","Pascau J
:Augmented reality (AR) has great potential in education, training, and surgical guidance in the medical field. Its combination with three-dimensional (3D) printing (3DP) opens new possibilities in clinical applications. Although these technologies have grown exponentially in recent years, their adoption by physicians is still limited, since they require extensive knowledge of engineering and software development. Therefore, the purpose of this protocol is to describe a step-by-step methodology enabling inexperienced users to create a smartphone app, which combines AR and 3DP for the visualization of anatomical 3D models of patients with a 3D-printed reference marker. The protocol describes how to create 3D virtual models of a patient's anatomy derived from 3D medical images. It then explains how to perform positioning of the 3D models with respect to marker references. Also provided are instructions for how to 3D print the required tools and models. Finally, steps to deploy the app are provided. The protocol is based on free and multi-platform software and can be applied to any medical imaging modality or patient. An alternative approach is described to provide automatic registration between a 3D-printed model created from a patient's anatomy and the projected holograms. As an example, a clinical case of a patient suffering from distal leg sarcoma is provided to illustrate the methodology. It is expected that this protocol will accelerate the adoption of AR and 3DP technologies by medical professionals.
: 增强现实 (AR) 在医学领域的教育、培训和手术指导方面具有巨大潜力。它与三维 (3D) 打印 (3DP) 的结合在临床应用中打开了新的可能性。尽管这些技术近年来呈指数级增长，但医生对它们的采用仍然有限，因为它们需要广泛的工程和软件开发知识。因此，该协议的目的是描述一种逐步的方法，使没有经验的用户能够创建智能手机应用程序，该应用程序将AR和3DP结合起来，用于用3D打印的参考标记可视化患者的解剖3D模型。该协议描述了如何创建从3D医学图像导出的患者解剖结构的3D虚拟模型。然后，它解释了如何相对于标记参考执行3D模型的定位。还提供了如何3D打印所需工具和模型的说明。最后，提供了部署应用程序的步骤。该协议基于自由和多平台软件，可以应用于任何医学成像模式或患者。描述了一种替代方法以提供从患者的解剖结构创建的3d打印模型与投影全息图之间的自动配准。作为实例，提供患有远端腿肉瘤的患者的临床病例以说明该方法。预计该协议将加速医疗专业人员采用AR和3DP技术。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.