Meshless reconstruction technique for digital tomosynthesis.
- 作者列表："Soloviev VY","Renforth KL","Dirckx CJ","Wells SG
:A novel meshless reconstruction algorithm for digital tomosynthesis (DT) is presented and assessed against experimental data. The algorithm does not require a three-dimensional grid or mesh allocation and performs a slice-by-slice reconstruction where each slice position can be chosen at runtime. The methodology is based on the filtered backprojection algorithm adapted to DT. However, in the traditional approach the backprojection comes first and the filtering follows. Because the backprojection requires ray tracing, in our case it is replaced with an equivalent image mapping procedure. The idea to swap the filtering and backprojection had been introduced earlier for computerized tomography (CT). Here we use this idea but develop it differently. Contrary to CT imaging, where the source and detector are rotated, in DT the subject and the flat panel detector are fixed in space. This imaging geometry allows reconstruction in planes parallel to the flat panel detector, which results in a significant simplification of the filter of backprojection algorithm. Moreover, the algorithm is not memory demanding and can be used with very large datasets. Two versions of the meshless algorithm are presented. One of them is based on convolution type filtering, while another uses filtering in the Fourier domain. Both versions are assessed and compared against the cone beam algorithm.
提出了一种新的数字断层合成 (DT) 无网格重建算法，并根据实验数据进行了评估。该算法不需要三维网格或网格分配，并且执行逐片重建，其中可以在运行时选择每个切片位置。该方法基于适合于DT的滤波反投影算法。然而，在传统方法中，反投影是第一位的，滤波是第一位的。因为反投影需要光线跟踪，所以在我们的情况下，它被替换为等效的图像映射过程。交换滤波和反投影的想法早些时候已经被引入计算机断层扫描 (CT)。在这里，我们使用这个想法，但发展方式不同。与旋转源和检测器的CT成像相反，在DT中，对象和平板检测器被固定在空间中。这种成像几何结构允许在平行于平板检测器的平面中进行重建，这导致反向投影算法的滤波器的显著简化。此外，该算法不需要内存，并且可以用于非常大的数据集。提出了两种无网格算法。其中一个是基于卷积型滤波，而另一个使用傅里叶域中的滤波。两个版本进行了评估，并与锥形束算法进行了比较。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.