A Postoperative Evaluation Guideline for Computer-Assisted Reconstruction of the Mandible.
- 作者列表："van Baar GJC","Liberton NPTJ","Winters HAH","Leeuwrik L","Forouzanfar T","Leusink FKJ
:Valid comparisons of postoperative accuracy results in computer-assisted reconstruction of the mandible are difficult due to heterogeneity in imaging modalities, mandibular defect classification, and evaluation methodologies between studies. This guideline uses a step-by-step approach guiding the process of imaging, classification of mandibular defects and volume assessment of three-dimensional (3D) models, after which a legitimized quantitative accuracy evaluation method can be performed between the postoperative clinical situation and the preoperative virtual plan. The condyles and the vertical and horizontal corners of the mandible are used as bony landmarks to define virtual lines in the computer-assisted surgery (CAS) software. Between these lines the axial, coronal, and both sagittal mandibular angles are calculated on both pre- and postoperative 3D models of the (neo)mandible and subsequently the deviations are calculated. By superimposing the postoperative 3D model to the preoperative virtually planned 3D model, which is fixed to the XYZ axis, the deviation between pre- and postoperative virtually planned dental implant positions can be calculated. This protocol continues and specifies an earlier publication of this evaluation guideline.
: 由于成像模式、下颌骨缺损分类和研究之间的评估方法的异质性，计算机辅助下颌骨重建术后准确性结果的有效比较是困难的。本指南采用循序渐进的方法指导三维 (3D) 模型的成像过程、下颌骨缺损的分类和体积评估，之后可以在术后临床情况和术前虚拟计划之间进行合法的定量准确性评估方法。在计算机辅助手术 (CAS) 软件中，髁突和下颌骨的垂直和水平角被用作骨标志来定义虚拟线。在这些线之间，在 (新) 下颌骨的术前和术后3D模型上计算轴向、冠状和两个矢状下颌角，随后计算偏差。通过将术后3D模型叠加到术前虚拟计划的3D模型 (其被固定到XYZ轴)，可以计算术前和术后虚拟计划的牙科植入物位置之间的偏差。本方案继续并规定了本评估指南的早期发布。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.