On the relation between anticipatory ocular torsion and anticipatory smooth pursuit.
- 作者列表："Rothwell AC","Wu X","Edinger J","Spering M
:Humans and other animals move their eyes in anticipation to compensate for sensorimotor delays. Such anticipatory eye movements can be driven by the expectation of a future visual object or event. Here we investigate whether such anticipatory responses extend to ocular torsion, the eyes' rotation about the line of sight. We recorded three-dimensional eye position in head-fixed healthy human adults who tracked a rotating dot pattern moving horizontally across a computer screen. This kind of stimulus triggers smooth pursuit with a horizontal and torsional component. In three experiments, we elicited expectation of stimulus rotation by repeatedly showing the same rotation (Experiment 1), or by using different types of higher-level symbolic cues indicating the rotation of the upcoming target (Experiments 2 and 3). Across all experiments, results reveal reliable anticipatory horizontal smooth pursuit. However, anticipatory torsion was only elicited by stimulus repetition, but not by symbolic cues. In summary, torsion can be made in anticipation of an upcoming visual event only when low-level motion signals are accumulated by repetition. Higher-level cognitive mechanisms related to a symbolic cue reliably evoke anticipatory pursuit but did not modulate torsion. These findings indicate that anticipatory torsion and anticipatory pursuit are at least partly decoupled and might be controlled separately.
: 人类和其他动物预期地移动眼睛以补偿感觉运动延迟。这种预期的眼睛运动可以由对未来视觉对象或事件的预期来驱动。在这里，我们研究这种预期反应是否延伸到眼睛扭转，眼睛围绕视线旋转。我们记录了头部固定的健康成人的三维眼睛位置，他们跟踪了在电脑屏幕上水平移动的旋转点图案。这种刺激触发具有水平和扭转分量的平滑追求。在三个实验中，我们通过重复显示相同的旋转 (实验1)，或者通过使用不同类型的指示即将到来的目标的旋转的更高级别的符号线索 (实验2和3) 来引出刺激旋转的期望。在所有实验中，结果揭示了可靠的预期水平平滑追踪。然而，预期扭转仅由刺激重复引起，而不是由符号线索引起。总之，只有当低水平运动信号通过重复累积时，才可以在预期即将到来的视觉事件时进行扭转。与象征性线索相关的高级认知机制可靠地唤起预期追求，但不调节扭转。这些发现表明，预期扭转和预期追求至少部分解耦，并可能单独控制。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.