Edge effects in 3D dosimetry: characterisation and correction of the non-uniform dose response of PRESAGE®.
- 作者列表："Costa F","Doran SJ","Hanson IM","Adamovics J","Nill S","Oelfke U
:Previous work has shown that PRESAGE® can be used successfully to perform 3D dosimetric measurements of complex radiotherapy treatments. However, measurements near the sample edges are known to be difficult to achieve. This is an issue when the doses at air-material interfaces are of interest, for example when investigating the electron return effect (ERE) present in treatments delivered by magnetic resonance (MR)-linac systems. To study this effect, a set of 3.5 cm-diameter cylindrical PRESAGE® samples was uniformly irradiated with multiple dose fractions, using either a conventional linac or an MR-linac. The samples were imaged between fractions using an optical-CT, to read out the corresponding accumulated doses. A calibration between TPS-predicted dose and optical-CT pixel value was determined for individual dosimeters as a function of radial distance from the axis of rotation. This data was used to develop a correction that was applied to four additional samples of PRESAGE® of the same formulation, irradiated with 3D-CRT and IMRT treatment plans, to recover significantly improved 3D measurements of dose. An alternative strategy was also tested, in which the outer surface of the sample was physically removed prior to irradiation. Results show that for the formulation studied here, PRESAGE® samples have a central region that responds uniformly and an edge region of 6-7 mm where there is gradual increase in dosimeter response, rising to an over-response of 24%-36% at the outer boundary. This non-uniform dose response increases in both extent and magnitude over time. Both mitigation strategies investigated were successful. In our four exemplar studies, we show how discrepancies at edges are reduced from 13%-37% of the maximum dose to between 2 and 8%. Quantitative analysis shows that the 3D gamma passing rates rise from 90.4, 69.3, 63.7 and 43.6% to 97.3, 99.9, 96.7 and 98.9% respectively.
: 以前的工作表明，这种预感®可以成功地用于执行复杂放射治疗的3D剂量测量。然而，已知在样品边缘附近的测量难以实现。当对空气-材料界面处的剂量感兴趣时，例如当研究由磁共振 (MR)-linac系统递送的治疗中存在的电子返回效应 (ERE) 时，这是一个问题。为了研究这种效应，一组3.5厘米直径的圆柱形预兆®使用常规linac或MR-linac，用多个剂量级分均匀地照射样品。使用光学CT在级分之间对样品成像，以读出相应的累积剂量。对于单个剂量计，确定TPS预测剂量和光学-CT像素值之间的校准作为距旋转轴的径向距离的函数。这个数据被用来开发一个校正，被应用于4个额外的样品的预兆。®相同的制剂，用3D-CRT和IMRT治疗计划照射，以恢复显著改善的剂量的3D测量。还测试了一种替代策略，其中在辐射之前物理去除样品的外表面。结果表明，对于这里研究的制剂，预示着®样品具有均匀响应的中心区域和6-7毫米的边缘区域，其中剂量计响应逐渐增加，在外边界处上升到24%-36% 的过度响应。这种不均匀的剂量反应在程度和幅度上随时间增加。研究的两种缓解策略都取得了成功。在我们的四个范例研究中，我们显示了边缘处的差异如何从最大剂量的13%-37% 降低到2-8%。定量分析表明，3D gamma通过率分别从90.4、69.3、63.7和43.6% 上升到97.3、99.9、96.7和98.9%。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.