Morphometric geometric differences between right and left human tali: A cadaveric study of fluctuating asymmetry via systematic measurement and three-dimensional scanning.
- 作者列表："Angthong C","Rajbhandari P","Veljkovic A","Piyaphanee A","Stufkens SAS","Wibowo R
BACKGROUND:Little is known about differences in the size and morphology of the right and left human tali. The present study demonstrates differences between right and left talar morphometric geometric profiles as fluctuating asymmetry in matched pairs of cadaveric specimens. METHODS:In total, 24 tali were collected in this study. All eligible tali were systematically measured with a Vernier caliper and three-dimensional laser scanner, which provided data for further analysis regarding the talar morphometric geometric profiles. Data were calculated to demonstrate differences between the right and left talar profiles using a matched-pair method, including the general size of the talus. RESULTS:The average talar length was 53.5 mm, the average talar dome height was 31.2 mm, and the average talar body width was 41.3 mm. The average anterior trochlear width, middle trochlear width, posterior trochlear width, and trochlear length were 31.8, 31.2, 28.3, and 30.7 mm, respectively. Eleven matched pairs of intact tali were eligible for the matched-pair study. Paired t-tests showed significant differences in the talar dome height (P = 0.019), middle trochlear width (P = 0.027), and posterior trochlear width (P = 0.016) between the right and left tali. However, there were no significant differences in the surface area or volume between the right and left tali. CONCLUSION:Significant differences in the morphometric profile were found between the right and left matched pairs of tali. This basic information indicates that the profile of the contralateral talus may not be used as a single reference to reconstruct or duplicate the talus of interest in certain conditions such as talar prosthesis implantation or customized total ankle replacement.
背景: 对左右人tali的大小和形态的差异知之甚少。本研究表明，在配对的尸体标本中，左右距骨形态几何轮廓之间的差异为波动不对称性。 方法: 本研究共收集24例tali。用游标卡尺和三维激光扫描仪系统地测量所有合格的tali，这为进一步分析talar形态测量几何轮廓提供了数据。使用配对方法计算数据以证明右侧和左侧距骨轮廓之间的差异，包括距骨的一般大小。 结果: 平均距骨长53.5毫米cm，平均距骨穹隆高31.2毫米cm，平均距骨体宽41.3毫米cm，平均前滑车宽、中滑车宽、后滑车宽、滑车长分别为31.8 cm、31.2 cm、28.3 cm、30.7毫米cm。11对匹配的完整tali符合配对研究的条件。配对t检验显示右侧和左侧距骨之间的距骨穹顶高度 (P = 0.019) 、中间滑车宽度 (P = 0.027) 和后滑车宽度 (P = 0.016) 有显著差异。然而，在右侧和左侧tali之间的表面积或体积没有显著差异。 结论: 在右侧和左侧配对的tali之间发现了形态学特征的显著差异。该基本信息表明，对侧距骨的轮廓不能用作在某些条件下重建或复制感兴趣的距骨的单一参考，例如距骨假体植入或定制的全踝关节置换。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.