Lateral semi-circular canal asymmetry in females with idiopathic scoliosis.
- 作者列表："Carry PM","Duke VR","Brazell CJ","Stence N","Scholes M","Rousie DL","Hadley Miller N
PURPOSE:Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal structural deformity that occurs in otherwise normal individuals. Although curve progression and severity vary amongst individuals, AIS can lead to significant cosmetic and functional deformity. AIS etiology has been determined to be genetic, however, exact genetic and biological processes underlying this disorder remain unknown. Vestibular structure and function have potentially been related to the etiopathogenesis of AIS. Here, we aimed to characterize the anatomy of the semicircular canals (SCC) within the vestibular system through a novel approach utilizing T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI). METHODS:Three dimensional, MRI-based models of the SCCs were generated from AIS subjects (n = 20) and healthy control subjects (n = 19). Linear mixed models were used to compare SCC morphological measurements in the two groups. We compared side-to-side differences in the SCC measurements between groups (group*side interaction). RESULTS:Side-to-side differences in the lateral SCC were different between the two groups [false discovery rate adjusted p-value: 0.0107]. Orientation of right versus left lateral SCC was significantly different in the AIS group compared to the control group [mean side-to-side difference: -4.1°, 95% CI: -6.4° to -1.7°]. Overall, among subjects in the AIS group, the left lateral SCC tended to be oriented in a more horizontal position than subjects in the control group. SIGNIFICANCE:Asymmetry within the SCCs of the vestibular system of individuals with AIS potentially results in abnormal efferent activity to postural muscles. Consequences of this muscular activity during periods of rapid growth, which often coincides with AIS onset and progression, warrant consideration.
目的: 青少年特发性脊柱侧凸 (AIS) 是一种发生在其他正常个体中的三维脊柱结构畸形。尽管曲线进展和严重程度在个体之间变化，但AIS可导致显著的美容和功能畸形。已经确定AIS病因是遗传的，然而，这种疾病的确切遗传和生物过程仍然未知。前庭结构和功能可能与AIS的发病机制有关。在这里，我们旨在通过一种利用T2-weighted磁共振图像 (MRI) 的新方法来表征前庭系统内半规管 (SCC) 的解剖结构。 方法: 从AIS受试者 (n = 20) 和健康对照受试者 (n = 19) 产生基于MRI的SCCs的三维模型。线性混合模型用于比较两组中的SCC形态学测量。我们比较了各组之间SCC测量值的左右差异 (组 * 侧相互作用)。 结果: 两组间外侧SCC的侧对侧差异不同 [假发现率调整后的p值: 0.0107]。与对照组相比，AIS组中右侧与左侧SCC的方向显著不同 [平均左右差异: -4.1 °，95% CI: -6.4 ° 至-1.7 °]。总的来说，在AIS组的受试者中，与对照组的受试者相比，左侧SCC倾向于以更水平的位置定向。 意义: AIS个体前庭系统SCCs内的不对称可能导致姿势肌肉的异常传出活动。这种肌肉活动在快速生长期间的后果，这通常与AIS的发作和进展相一致，值得考虑。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.