- 作者列表："Rottner L","Waddell D","Lin T","Metzner A","Rillig A
INTRODUCTION:Catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) is an effective treatment option with encouraging clinical outcome data. Further improvement of catheter technologies is desirable, in particular for patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of novel ablation tools in AF-ablation. AREAS COVERED:The most widely used ablation tool still is the single-tip catheter for radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Contact-force (CF) catheters and the introduction of individualized ablation protocols may overcome limitations of single-tip RF-based ablation. Furthermore, balloon-based pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) - first and foremost the cryoballoon (CB) - based ablation - moved into the foreground especially for the treatment of paroxysmal AF, because of its ease of use and proven safety. Upcoming RF balloon technologies are also promising. Moreover, new mapping and imaging technologies might help to identify non-PV-triggers in patients with arrhythmia recurrence and may have the potential to enable real-time therapy assessment. EXPERT OPINION:New ablation tools such as CF-sensing catheters or novel balloon-devices could help to overcome the major limitation of PV-reconnection and lead to improved outcomes. Moreover, novel mapping tools to identify extra-PV-triggers may improve ablation success in patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF.
简介: 导管消融 (CA) 治疗心房颤动 (AF) 是一种有效的治疗选择，具有令人鼓舞的临床结果数据。需要进一步改进导管技术，特别是对于具有持续性和长期持续性AF的患者。本综述的目的是提供一个新的消融工具在房颤消融的概述。 覆盖区域: 最广泛使用的消融工具仍然是用于射频 (RF) 消融的单尖导管。接触力 (CF) 导管和个体化消融方案的引入可以克服基于单尖端RF的消融的限制。此外，基于球囊的肺静脉隔离 (PVI) -首先是基于冷冻球囊 (CB) 的消融-进入前景，特别是用于治疗阵发性AF，因为其易于使用和被证明的安全性。即将到来的射频气球技术也是有希望的。此外，新的映射和成像技术可能有助于识别心律失常复发患者的非PV触发因素，并且可能具有实现实时治疗评估的潜力。 专家意见: 新的消融工具，如CF传感导管或新型球囊装置，可以帮助克服PV-reconnection的主要限制，并导致改善的结果。此外，用于识别PV外触发的新型映射工具可以改善具有持续性和长期持续性AF的患者的消融成功。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.