Effect of aging and body characteristics on facial sexual dimorphism in the Caucasian Population.
- 作者列表："Skomina Z","Verdenik M","Hren NI
AIM:The aim of this study was to quantify gender-specific facial characteristics in younger and older adults and to determine how aging and body characteristics, such as height and body-mass index (BMI), influence facial sexual dimorphism. METHODS:The cohort study included 90 younger adults of Caucasian origin (average age of 45 females 23.2 ± 1.9 and 45 males 23.7 ± 2.4 years) and 90 older adults (average age of 49 females 78.1 ± 8.1 and 41 males 74.5 ± 7.7 years). Three-dimensional facial scans were performed with an Artec MHT 3D scanner. The data were analyzed using the software package Rapidform®. The parameters to evaluate facial symmetry, height, width, profile, facial shape, nose, eyes and mouth characteristics were determined based on 39 facial landmarks. Student's t-test was used to calculate the statistical differences between the genders in the younger and older adults and a multiple-linear-regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of gender, age, body-mass index and body height. RESULTS:We found that the female faces were more symmetrical than the male faces, and this was statistically significant in the older adults. The female facial shape was more rounded and their faces were smaller, after normalizing for body size. The males had wider mouths, longer upper lips, larger noses and more prominent lower foreheads. Surprisingly, we found that all the gender-dependent characteristics were even more pronounced in the older adults. Increased facial asymmetry, decreased facial convexity, increased forehead angle, narrower vermilions and longer inter-eye distances occurred in both genders during aging. An increased BMI was associated with wider faces, more concave facial profiles and wider noses, while greater body height correlated with increased facial heights and wider mouths. CONCLUSION:Facial sexual dimorphism was confirmed by multiple parameters in our study, while the differences between the genders were more pronounced in the older adults.
目的: 本研究的目的是量化年轻人和老年人的性别特异性面部特征，并确定衰老和身体特征 (如身高和体重指数 (BMI)) 如何影响面部性别二型性。 方法: 队列研究包括90名高加索裔年轻人 (平均年龄为45名女性23.2 ± 1.9岁，45名男性23.7 ± 2.4岁) 和90名老年人 (平均年龄为49名女性78.1 ± 8.1岁，41名男性74.5 ± 7.7岁)。用Artec MHT 3D扫描仪进行三维面部扫描。使用Rapidform软件包对数据进行分析。®没有。基于39个面部标志确定评估面部对称性、高度、宽度、轮廓、面部形状、鼻子、眼睛和嘴特征的参数。使用学生t检验计算年轻人和老年人性别之间的统计学差异，并使用多元线性回归分析来评估性别，年龄，体重指数和身高的影响。 结果: 我们发现女性面孔比男性面孔更对称，这在老年人中具有统计学意义。在身体尺寸正常化后，女性面部形状更圆，面部更小。雄性的嘴更宽，上嘴唇更长，鼻子更大，下额头更突出。令人惊讶的是，我们发现所有依赖性别的特征在老年人中甚至更明显。两种性别均在增龄过程中出现面部不对称增加、面部凸度下降、额角增大、朱红变窄、眼间距离变长。BMI增加与更宽的面部、更多的凹面和更宽的鼻子相关，而更大的身高与增加的面部高度和更宽的嘴相关。 结论: 在我们的研究中，面部性二型被多个参数证实，而性别之间的差异在老年人中更明显。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.