Interdimensional Travel: Visualisation of 3D-2D Transitions in Anatomy Learning.
- 作者列表："Keenan ID","Powell M
:Clinical image interpretation is one of the most challenging activities for students when they first arrive at medical school. Interpretation of clinical images concerns the identification of three-dimensional anatomical features in two-dimensional cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images in axial, sagittal and coronal planes, and the recognition of structures in ultrasound and plain radiographs. We propose that a cognitive transition occurs when initially attempting to interpret clinical images, which requires reconciling known 3D structures with previously unknown 2D visual information. Additionally, we propose that this 3D-2D transition is required when integrating an understanding of superficial 2D surface landmarks with an appreciation of underlying 3D anatomical structures during clinical examinations.Based on educational theory and research findings, we recommend that 3D and 2D approaches should be simultaneously combined within radiological and surface anatomy education. With a view to this, we have developed and utilised digital and art-based methods to support the 3D-2D transition. We outline our observations and evaluations, and describe our practical implementation of these approaches within medical curricula to serve as a guide for anatomy educators. Furthermore, we define the theoretical underpinnings and evidence supporting the integration of 3D-2D approaches and the value of our specific activities for enhancing the clinical image interpretation and surface anatomy learning of medical students.
: 临床影像解读是学生刚到医学院时最具挑战性的活动之一。临床图像的解释涉及在二维横断面计算机断层扫描 (CT) 和磁共振成像 (MRI) 图像中在轴向、矢状面和冠状面中识别三维解剖特征，以及在超声和平片中识别结构。我们提出，当最初试图解释临床图像时，会发生认知转变，这需要将已知的3D结构与以前未知的2D视觉信息进行协调。此外，我们建议在临床检查期间，当整合对表面2D表面标志的理解和对潜在3D解剖结构的欣赏时，这种3D-2D转换是必需的。基于教育理论和研究结果，我们建议3D和2D方法应该同时结合放射学和表面解剖学教育。鉴于此，我们已经开发和利用数字和基于艺术的方法来支持3D-2D过渡。我们概述了我们的观察和评估，并描述了我们在医学课程中实际实施这些方法的情况，以作为解剖学教育者的指南。此外，我们定义了支持3D-2D方法整合的理论基础和证据，以及我们的具体活动对加强医学生临床图像解释和表面解剖学习的价值。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.