- 作者列表："Tsukiboshi Y","Tanikawa C","Yamashiro T
INTRODUCTION:The purpose of this study was to apply a previously reported homologous model for quantifying and visualizing the three-dimensional (3D) cranio-mandibular morphology. METHODS:Twenty-eight 3D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of Japanese patients (7 to 13 years of age) showing skeletal Class 1 malocclusions were used in this study. Wire mesh fitting was conducted for each patient based on the assignment of landmarks to each 3D surface (homologous modeling). Cranial and mandibular images were generated using surface rendering of the CBCT images. The mean and standard deviation of each point on the wire mesh were calculated as the normative mean. Two operators conducted the process twice for seven patients, with a one-week interval between fittings. The intra- and inter-examiner reliability were determined using the 95% confidence interval minimal detectable change (MDC95) for random error and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). RESULTS:The intra- and inter-examiner reliability of the mesh fitting method were almost perfect. Normative ranges of the cranial and mandibular surfaces of Japanese were determined. CONCLUSIONS:A clinical method that enables practitioners to quantify and visualize the hard tissues of a patient's face in three dimensions with almost perfect reliability is presented. This method allows practitioners to evaluate how patients' skeletal characteristics differ from normative means in three dimensions.
引言: 本研究的目的是应用以前报道的同源模型来量化和可视化三维 (3D) 颅下颌形态。 方法: 本研究中使用了28个日本患者 (7至13岁) 的3D锥形束计算机断层扫描 (CBCT) 图像，显示骨骼性1类错牙合。基于向每个3D表面分配标志 (同源建模) 对每个患者进行丝网拟合。使用CBCT图像的表面渲染生成颅骨和下颌图像。计算丝网上每个点的平均值和标准偏差作为标准平均值。两名操作员为7名患者进行了两次该过程，配件之间间隔一周。使用随机误差和类内相关系数 (ICCs) 的95% 置信区间最小可检测变化 (MDC95) 确定内部和内部检查器可靠性。 结果: 网格拟合方法的内部和内部检验可靠性几乎是完美的。确定了日本人颅骨和下颌表面的规范范围。 结论: 提出了一种临床方法，使从业者能够以几乎完美的可靠性在三维空间量化和可视化患者面部的硬组织。这种方法允许从业者评估患者的骨骼特征在三个维度上与规范手段有何不同。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.