Three-Dimensional Angles of Confluence of Cortical Bridging Veins and the Superior Sagittal Sinus on MR Venography: Does Drainage of Adjacent Brain Arteriovenous Malformations Alter this Spatial Configuration?
- 作者列表："Yedavalli V","Telischak NA","Jain MS","Massoud TF
:Few neuroimaging anatomic studies to date have investigated in detail the point of entry of cortical bridging veins (CBVs) into the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Although we know that most CBVs join the SSS at an acute angle opposite to the direction of SSS blood flow, the three-dimensional (3-D) spatial configuration of these venous confluences has not been studied previously. This anatomical information would be pertinent to several clinically applicable scenarios, such as in planning intracranial surgical approaches that preserve bridging veins; studying anatomical factors in the pathophysiology of SSS thrombosis; and when planning endovascular microcatheterization of pial veins to retrogradely embolize brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We used the concept of Euclidean planes in 3-D space to calculate the arccosine of these CBV-SSS angles of confluence. To test the hypothesis that pial AVM draining veins may not be any more acutely angled or difficult to microcatheterize at the SSS than for normal CBVs, we measured 70 angles of confluence on magnetic resonance venography images of 11 normal, and nine AVM patients. There was no statistical difference between normal and AVM patients in the CBV-SSS angles projected in 3-D space (56.2° [SD = 22.4°], and 46.2° [SD = 22.3°], respectively; P > 0.05). Hence, participation of CBVs in drainage of pial AVMs should not confer any added difficulty to their microcatheterization across the SSS, when compared to the acute angles found in normal individuals. This has useful implications for potential choices of strategies requiring endovascular transvenous retrograde approaches to treat AVMs. Clin. Anat. 33:293-299, 2020. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
: 迄今为止，很少有神经影像学解剖学研究详细研究皮质桥静脉 (CBVs) 进入上矢状窦 (SSS) 的点。虽然我们知道大多数cbv以与SSS血流方向相反的锐角加入SSS，但这些静脉融合的三维 (3-D) 空间构型以前尚未研究过。该解剖学信息将与几种临床适用的方案相关，例如规划保留桥静脉的颅内手术入路; 研究SSS血栓形成的病理生理学中的解剖学因素; 以及规划软脑膜静脉的血管内微导管以逆行栓塞脑动静脉畸形 (AVMs)。我们在三维空间中使用欧几里得平面的概念来计算这些CBV-SSS汇合角的arccosine。为了验证软脑膜AVM引流静脉在SSS处可能没有比正常CBVs更锐利的角度或难以微导管插入的假设，我们在11例正常和9例AVM患者的磁共振静脉造影图像上测量了70个角度的汇合。正常和AVM患者在三维空间投影的cbv-sss角度上没有统计学差异 (分别为56.2 ° [SD = 22.4 °] 和46.2 ° [SD = 22.3 °]; P > 0.05)。因此，当与在正常个体中发现的锐角相比时，cbv参与pial avm的引流不应该给它们在SSS上的微导管插入术带来任何额外的困难。这对于需要血管内经静脉逆行入路治疗avm的策略的潜在选择具有有用的意义。克林。Anat.33:293-299、2020。©2019威利期刊公司
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.