Examination of new parameters for sex determination of mandible using Japanese computer tomography data.
- 作者列表："Suzuki K","Nakano H","Inoue K","Nakajima Y","Mizobuchi S","Omori M","Kato-Kogoe N","Mishima K","Ueno T
OBJECTIVE:In the field of forensic science, sex discrimination of skeletons is an important identification item for personal identification. The individual sex discrimination method using skeletons includes a determination method using measurement values and a macroscopic form observation method. Both methods have advantage and disadvantage. In this study, we used the homologous model technique and principal component (PC) analysis to determine gender difference from morphology of the mandible. METHODS AND MATERIALS:45 patients (23 males and 22 females) of CT imaging for tooth extraction from January 2018 to March 2019 at department of oral surgery, Osaka Medical College. The mean age was 43.1 ± 14.6. Patients with less than 14 remaining teeth were excluded because the number of remaining teeth may affect the shape of the mandible. 3D images were constructed, and 20 landmarks plotting on the 3D model surfaces. We generated template models of the mandible consisting of approximately 8434 polygons. The template model automatically fitted into the individually scanned point cloud of the mandible by minimising external and internal energy functions. As described above, the mandibles were constructed for each sample by using the Homologous Body Modeling software (HBM, Digital Human Technology, Inc.) and the mHBM-Rugle (Medic Engineering Corporation). The mandibles were analysed using the PCA. RESULTS:The contribution of the most important PC was found to be 27.2%. 12 PCs explained over 75% of the total variance. That is, it was able to express 75% or more of the mandible expression with 12 PCs. A significant difference between male and female was observed in the first PCs (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05). Visualising the result of the first PC showed that the mandibular branch of male was larger than that of female, and the mandible angle was overhanging outside. CONCLUSION:This method is a combination of the determination method using the previous measurement values and the determination using macroscopic observation, and is considered to be innovative method.
目的: 在法医学领域，骨骼的性别辨别是个人身份鉴定的重要鉴定项目。使用骨骼的个体性别辨别方法包括使用测量值的确定方法和宏观形态观察方法。两种方法各有优缺点。在这项研究中，我们使用同源模型技术和主成分 (PC) 分析来确定下颌骨形态的性别差异。 方法和材料: 2018年1月至2019年3月在大阪医学院口腔外科进行拔牙CT影像学检查的45例患者 (男23例，女22例)。平均年龄为43.1 ± 14.6岁。剩余牙齿少于14颗的患者被排除在外，因为剩余牙齿的数量可能会影响下颌骨的形状。构建3D图像，并在3D模型表面上绘制20个标志。我们生成了由大约8434个多边形组成的下颌骨模板模型。通过最小化外部和内部能量函数，模板模型自动拟合到下颌骨的单独扫描的点云中。如上所述，通过使用同源身体建模软件 (HBM，数字人类技术公司) 和mHBM-Rugle (Medic工程公司) 为每个样品构建下颌骨。使用PCA分析下颌骨。 结果: 发现最重要的PC的贡献为27.2%。12个PCs解释了超过75% 的总方差。也就是说，它能够用12个PCs表达75% 或更多的下颌骨表达。在第一个PCs中观察到雄性和雌性之间的显著差异 (Wilcoxon检验，p <0.05)。第一个PC的结果显示，男性的下颌支大于女性，下颌角悬垂在外面。 结论: 该方法是利用以往测定值的测定方法与利用宏观观察的测定方法的结合，被认为是一种创新性的方法。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.