Design and application of a novel patient-specific 3D printed drill navigational guiding template in percutaneous thoracolumbar pedicle screw fixation: A cadaveric study.
- 作者列表："Li Z","Xu D","Li F","Liu M","Xu G","Yang M
:The conventional surgical method of percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PPSF) mainly uses X-ray fluoroscopy guidance to target the vertebral pedicle for screw placement. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of establishing a personalized drill guide template for PPSF based on a three-dimensional (3D) printing technique and to evaluate the accuracy and safety of the method for assisting screw insertion in cadaveric specimens. The T3-L3 trunk cadaveric specimens from six adults were subject to a computed tomography (CT) scan in the prone position. A three-dimensional model containing the back skin contour was reconstructed. A bilateral ideal pedicle screw in the T6-L1 segment was designed. Then, the reverse templates were designed. The two templates were fused and printed into an individualized guide template. PPSF was performed under the assistance of the guide template, and the CT scan was taken postoperatively to access the screw position. Ninety-six pedicle screws were successfully placed on the bilateral vertebral body of the T6-L1 segment with the assistance of a guide template. The guide plate was not loosened or displaced when operated by a single hand, and the operation time was 24.6 ± 7.9 s. The axial CT images after puncture indicated that in 96 puncture needles, 90 needles were grade I and 6 were grade II, with a puncture accuracy rate of 98.6%. In conclusion, an individualized PPSF navigation template was developed using Mimics software and 3D printing prototyping, which improved the accuracy of PPSF in cadaveric specimens.
: 经皮椎弓根螺钉固定 (PPSF) 的常规手术方法主要是利用x线透视引导，靶向椎弓根进行螺钉置入。本研究旨在探索基于三维打印技术建立PPSF个性化钻孔导向模板的可行性，并评估尸体标本中辅助螺钉插入方法的准确性和安全性。对6名成人的T3-L3个躯干尸体标本进行俯卧位的计算机断层扫描 (CT)。重建包含背部皮肤轮廓的三维模型。设计了T6-L1节段的双侧理想椎弓根螺钉。然后，设计了逆向模板。将两个模板融合并打印成个性化指南模板。PPSF在导向模板的辅助下进行，术后进行ct扫描以接近螺钉位置。在导向模板的辅助下，将96枚椎弓根螺钉成功地放置在T6-L1节段的双侧椎体上。单手操作时导板无松动、移位，操作时间24.6 ± 7.9 s。穿刺后轴位CT图像提示: 96支穿刺针中，ⅰ 级90支，ⅱ 级6支，穿刺准确率为98.6%。综上所述，利用Mimics软件和3D打印原型制作了个体化PPSF导航模板，提高了尸体标本PPSF导航的准确性。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.