Late rescue therapy with cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for established lung injury in experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
- 作者列表："O'Reilly M","Möbius MA","Vadivel A","Ionescu L","Fung M","Eaton F","Greer JJ","Thébaud B
:Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the main complication of extreme prematurity, has life-long consequences for lung health. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) prevent lung injury in experimental BPD in newborn rodents when given in the immediate neonatal period. Whether MSC therapy can restore normal lung growth after established lung injury in adulthood is clinically relevant, but currently unknown. Experimental BPD was achieved by exposing newborn rats to 95% O2 from postnatal days 4-14. Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs were intratracheally administered to rats (1x106cells/kg body weight) as a single dose at 3 or 6 months of age followed by assessment at 5 or 8 months of age, respectively. Lung alveolar structure and vessel density were histologically analyzed. O2-exposed rats exhibited persistent lung injury characterized by arrested alveolar growth with airspace enlargement and a lower vessel density at both 5 and 8 months of age compared to controls. Single-dose MSC treatment at 3 months partially attenuated O2-induced alveolar injury and restored vessel density at 5 months. Treatment with a single dose at 6 months did not attenuate alveolar injury or vessel density at 8 months. However, treatment with multiple MSC doses at 6, 6.5, 7, and 7.5 months significantly attenuated alveolar injury and improved vessel density at 8 months of age. Treatment of the adult BPD lung with MSCs has the potential to improve lung injury if administered in multiple doses or at an early stage of adulthood.
: 支气管肺发育不良 (BPD) 是极度早产的主要并发症，对肺部健康有终身影响。间充质基质细胞 (MSC) 在新生儿期给药时可防止新生啮齿类动物实验性 BPD 的肺损伤。MSC 治疗是否能在成年期建立肺损伤后恢复正常的肺生长是临床相关的，但目前尚不清楚。实验 BPD 是通过将新生大鼠暴露于出生后 4-14 天的 95% O2 来实现的。人脐带来源的 MSCs 在 3 或 6 月龄时以单次剂量气管内给予大鼠 (1x106cells/kg 体重)，然后在 5 或 8 月龄时分别进行评估。对肺泡结构和血管密度进行组织学分析。与对照组相比，O2-暴露的大鼠表现出以肺泡生长停滞、空域扩大和 5 月龄和 8 月龄血管密度较低为特征的持续性肺损伤。3 个月时单剂量 MSC 治疗可部分减轻 O2-诱导的肺泡损伤，并在 5 个月时恢复血管密度。6 个月时单剂量治疗未减轻 8 个月时的肺泡损伤或血管密度。然而，在 6 、 6.5 、 7 和 7.5 个月时给予多次 MSC 治疗可显著减轻肺泡损伤，并在 8 个月时改善血管密度。用 MSCs 治疗成人 BPD 肺，如果多次给药或在成年早期阶段，有可能改善肺损伤。
METHODS:Background Dye localization is a useful method for the resection of unidentifiable small pulmonary lesions. This study compares the transbronchial route with augmented fluoroscopic bronchoscopy (AFB) and conventional transthoracic CT-guided methods for preoperative dye localization in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Between April 2015 and March 2019, a total of 231 patients with small pulmonary lesions who received preoperative dye localization via AFB or percutaneous CT-guided technique were enrolled in the study. A propensity-matched analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, was used to compare localization and surgical outcomes between the two groups. Results After matching, a total of 90 patients in the AFB group ( N = 30) and CT-guided group ( N = 60) were selected for analysis. No significant difference was noted in the demographic data between both the groups. Dye localization was successfully performed in 29 patients (96.7%) and 57 patients (95%) with AFB and CT-guided method, respectively. The localization duration (24.1 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 12.5 min, p = 0.297) and equivalent dose of radiation exposure (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 2.0 mSv, p = 0.130) were comparable in both the groups. No major procedure-related complications occurred in either group; however, a higher rate of pneumothorax (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029) and focal intrapulmonary hemorrhage (3.3 vs. 26.7%, p = 0.008) was noted in the CT-guided group. Conclusion AFB dye marking is an effective alternative for the preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions, with a lower risk of procedure-related complications than the conventional CT-guided method.
METHODS:Background The use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, is increasing in medicine. Use of machine learning is rising in the prediction of patient outcomes. Machine learning may also be able to enhance and augment anesthesia clinical procedures such as airway management. In this study, we sought to develop a machine learning algorithm that could classify vocal cords and tracheal airway anatomy real-time during video laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy as well as compare the performance of three novel convolutional networks for detecting vocal cords and tracheal rings. Methods Following institutional approval, a clinical dataset of 775 video laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy videos was used. The dataset was divided into two categories for use for training and testing. We used three convolutional neural networks (CNNs): ResNet, Inception and MobileNet. Backpropagation and a mean squared error loss function were used to assess accuracy as well as minimize bias and variance. Following training, we assessed transferability using the generalization error of the CNN, sensitivity and specificity, average confidence error, outliers, overall confidence percentage, and frames per second for live video feeds. After the training was complete, 22 models using 0 to 25,000 steps were generated and compared. Results The overall confidence of classification for the vocal cords and tracheal rings for ResNet, Inception and MobileNet CNNs were as follows: 0.84, 0.78, and 0.64 for vocal cords, respectively, and 0.69, 0.72, 0.54 for tracheal rings, respectively. Transfer learning following additional training resulted in improved accuracy of ResNet and Inception for identifying the vocal cords (with a confidence of 0.96 and 0.93 respectively). The two best performing CNNs, ResNet and Inception, achieved a specificity of 0.985 and 0.971, respectively, and a sensitivity of 0.865 and 0.892, respectively. Inception was able to process the live video feeds at 10 FPS while ResNet processed at 5 FPS. Both were able to pass a feasibility test of identifying vocal cords and tracheal rings in a video feed. Conclusions We report the development and evaluation of a CNN that can identify and classify airway anatomy in real time. This neural network demonstrates high performance. The availability of artificial intelligence may improve airway management and bronchoscopy by helping to identify key anatomy real time. Thus, potentially improving performance and outcomes during these procedures. Further, this technology may theoretically be extended to the settings of airway pathology or airway management in the hands of experienced providers. The researchers in this study are exploring the performance of this neural network in clinical trials.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. This article compares the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS:Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough according to a visual analog scale. The secondary outcomes included bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough and overall procedural satisfaction on a visual analog scale, total lignocaine dose, subject's willingness to undergo a repeat procedure, adverse reactions to lignocaine, and others. RESULTS:A total of 1,050 subjects (median age, 51 years; 64.8% men) were included. The median (interquartile range) score for subject-rated cough severity was significantly lower in group B compared to group C or group A (4 [1-10] vs 11 [4-24] vs 13 [5-30], respectively; P < .001). The bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough was also the least (P < .001), and the overall satisfaction was highest in group B (P < .001). The cumulative lignocaine dose administered was the least in group B (P < .001). A significantly higher proportion of subjects (P < .001) were willing to undergo a repeat bronchoscopy in group B (73.7%) than in groups A (49.1%) and C (59.4%). No lignocaine-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Ten actuations of 10% lignocaine oropharyngeal spray were superior to nebulized lignocaine or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03109392; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.