Trametinib alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting the MEK-ERK-Egr-1 pathway.
- 作者列表："Chen S","Xu H","Ye P","Wu C","Ding X","Chen S","Zhang H","Zou Y","Zhao J","Le S","Wu J","Chen S","Xia J
:Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating clinical disorder with a high mortality rate and for which there is no effective treatment. The main characteristic of ALI is uncontrolled inflammation, and macrophages play a critical role in the development of this disorder. Trametinib, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) activity that possesses anti-inflammatory properties, has been approved for clinical use. Herein, the influence of trametinib and its underlying mechanism were investigated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine ALI model. We found that trametinib treatment prevented the LPS-facilitated expression of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages, and this anti-inflammatory action was closely correlated with suppression of the MEK-ERK-early growth response (Egr)-1 pathway. Furthermore, trametinib treatment alleviated LPS-induced ALI in mice, and attenuated edema, proinflammatory mediator production, and neutrophil infiltration. Trametinib pretreatment also attenuated the MEK-ERK-Egr-1 pathway in lung tissues. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that trametinib pretreatment suppresses inflammation in LPS-activated macrophages in vitro and protects against murine ALI established by LPS administration in vivo through inhibition of the MEK-ERK-Egr-1 pathway. Therefore, trametinib might have therapeutic potential for ALI.
急性肺损伤 (ALI) 是一种严重的临床疾病，死亡率很高，目前尚无有效的治疗方法。ALI 的主要特征是不受控制的炎症，巨噬细胞在这种疾病的发展中起关键作用。Trametinib 是一种 MAPK/ERK 激酶 (MEK) 活性抑制剂，具有抗炎特性，已被批准用于临床。在此，使用脂多糖 (LPS) 诱导的小鼠 ALI 模型研究了 trametinib 的影响及其潜在机制。我们发现 trametinib 治疗阻止了 LPS 促进的巨噬细胞促炎介质的表达，并且这种抗炎作用与抑制 MEK-ERK-早期生长反应 (Egr) 密切相关 -1 通路。此外，trametinib 治疗减轻了 LPS 诱导的小鼠 ALI，减轻了水肿、促炎介质产生和中性粒细胞浸润。Trametinib 预处理也可减弱肺组织中的 MEK-ERK-Egr-1 通路。总之，这些数据表明，trametinib 预处理在体外抑制 LPS 激活的巨噬细胞的炎症，并通过抑制 MEK-ERK-Egr-1 途径保护体内 LPS 给药建立的小鼠 ALI。因此，trametinib 可能具有治疗 ALI 的潜力。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.