Diagnostic efficacy and molecular testing by combined fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy in patients with a lung nodule.
- 作者列表："Chen L","Jing H","Gong Y","Tam AL","Stewart J","Staerkel G","Guo M
BACKGROUND:Combined image-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB) has become the standard of care for diagnosis and/or molecular testing for patients with a solitary lung nodule at our institution. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of this practice. METHODS:We identified patients who underwent combined lung FNA/CNB during 2012 at our institution. A total of 667 patients who underwent 682 combined lung FNA/CNB procedures were included in the study, including 355 men and 312 women. Combined lung FNA/CNB procedures were performed by a radiologist. The adequacy of FNA specimens was assessed immediately by a cytopathologist. The FNA and CNB specimens were interpreted separately by a cytopathologist and a surgical pathologist, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the combined technique was determined. RESULTS:The rate of diagnostic consistency between FNA and CNB was 83.4%, and the rate of diagnostic accuracy for malignancy was 98.5% for combined FNA/CNB. Combined FNA/CNB showed a high diagnostic efficacy for malignancy (sensitivity, 97.6%; specificity, 100%). Combined FNA/CNB had a lower false-negative rate for malignancy (2.2%) than either FNA (7.2%) or CNB (6.2%) alone. FNA contributed to 10.3% of molecular analyses as a complementary tissue source. CONCLUSIONS:Combined lung FNA/CNB has high diagnostic efficacy for malignancy and a lower false-negative rate than either procedure alone. FNA was a valuable complement to CNB for molecular testing, potentially reducing patient inconvenience and morbidity associated with repeated lung needle biopsy.
背景: 影像引导下细针穿刺活检 (FNA) 和粗针穿刺活检 (CNB) 联合已成为我们机构孤立性肺结节患者诊断和/或分子检测的标准护理。我们的目的是评估这种做法的疗效。 方法: 我们确定了 2012年在我们机构接受联合肺 FNA/CNB 的患者。共有 667 例接受 682 次联合肺 FNA/CNB 手术的患者纳入研究，其中男性 355 例，女性 312 例。由放射科医师进行联合肺 FNA/CNB 手术。细胞病理学家立即评估 FNA 标本的充分性。FNA 和 CNB 标本分别由细胞病理学家和外科病理学家解释。确定了联合技术的诊断准确性。 结果: FNA 与 CNB 的诊断符合率为 83.4%，联合 FNA/CNB 对恶性肿瘤的诊断符合率为 98.5%。联合 FNA/CNB 对恶性肿瘤显示出较高的诊断效能 (敏感性，97.6%; 特异性，100%)。联合 FNA/CNB 对恶性肿瘤的假阴性率 (2.2%) 低于单独 FNA (7.2%) 或 CNB (6.2%)。FNA 作为互补组织来源贡献了 10.3% 的分子分析。 结论: 联合肺 FNA/CNB 对恶性肿瘤的诊断效能高，假阴性率低于单独任何一种手术。FNA 是 CNB 分子检测的有价值的补充，可能减少患者不便和重复肺穿刺活检相关的发病率。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.