Different macrophage polarization between drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis
- 作者列表："Hyun Jin Cho","Yun-Ji Lim","Jhingook Kim","Won-Jung Koh","Chang-Hwa Song","Min-Woong Kang
Abstract Background Macrophages play a key role in the infection process, and alternatively activated macrophages (M2 polarization) play important roles in persistent infection via the immune escape of pathogens. This suggests that immune escape of pathogens from host immunity is an important factor to consider in treatment failure and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). In this study, we investigated the association between macrophage polarization and MDR-TB/XDR-TB and the association between macrophage polarization and the anti-TB drugs used. Methods iNOS and arginase-1, a surface marker of polarized macrophages, were quantified by immunohistochemical staining and imaging analysis of lung tissues of patients who underwent surgical treatment for pulmonary TB. Drug susceptibility/resistance and the type and timing of anti-tuberculosis drugs used were investigated. Results The M2-like polarization rate and the ratio of the M2-like polarization rate to the M1-like polarization rate were significantly higher in the MDR-TB/XDR-TB group than in the DS-TB group. The association between a high M2-like polarization rate and MDR-TB/XDR-TB was more pronounced in patients with a low M1-like polarization rate. Younger age and a higher M2-like polarization rate were independent associated factors for MDR-TB/XDR-TB. The M2-like polarization rate was significantly higher in patients who received anti-TB drugs containing pyrazinamide continuously for 4 or 6 weeks than in those who received anti-TB drugs not containing pyrazinamide. Conclusions The M2-like polarization of macrophages is associated with MDR-TB/XDR-TB and anti-TB drug regimens including pyrazinamide or a combination of pyrazinamide, prothionamide and cycloserine.
【摘要】背景巨噬细胞在感染过程中起着关键作用，交替激活的巨噬细胞 (M2 极化) 通过病原体的免疫逃逸在持续性感染中发挥重要作用。这表明病原体从宿主免疫逃逸是治疗失败和耐多药结核病 (MDR-TB) 的重要考虑因素 /广泛耐药结核病 (XDR-TB)。在这项研究中，我们调查了巨噬细胞极化与 MDR-TB/XDR-TB 之间的关联，以及巨噬细胞极化与所用抗结核药物之间的关联。方法采用免疫组织化学染色和影像学分析方法，对肺结核病患者的肺组织进行极化巨噬细胞表面标记物 iNOS 和 arginase-1 的定量分析。药敏/耐药和抗结核药物使用的类型和时间进行了调查。结果 MDR-TB/XDR-TB 组的 M2-like 极化率和 M2-like 极化率与 M1-like 极化率的比值明显高于 DS-TB 组。高 M2-like 极化率与 MDR-TB/XDR-TB 之间的关联在低 M1-like 极化率的患者中更为明显。低龄和高 M2-like 极化率是 MDR-TB/XDR-TB 的独立相关因素。连续服用含吡嗪酰胺的抗结核药物 4 周或 6 周的患者 M2-like 极化率显著高于不含吡嗪酰胺的抗结核药物的患者。结论巨噬细胞的 M2-like 极化与 MDR-TB/XDR-TB 和抗结核药物包括吡嗪酰胺或吡嗪酰胺、丙硫酰胺和环丝氨酸的组合有关。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.