Higher chocolate intake is associated with longer telomere length among adolescents.
- 作者列表："Chen L","Zhu H","Gutin B","Sesso HD","Dong Y
BACKGROUND:Chocolate intake has shown cardiometabolic health benefits. Whether chocolate has any effect on cellular aging remains unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that higher chocolate intake is associated with longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in adolescents. METHODS:A total of 660 adolescents (aged 14-18 years) were included in the analysis. The chocolate intake was assessed by 7-day, 24-h dietary recalls and split into three groups, which were none, <2 servings/week, and 2 servings/week or more. LTL (T/S ratio) was determined by a modified quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based assay. RESULTS:Among the 660 adolescents, 58% did not take any chocolate, 25% consumed <2 servings/week, and 17% consumed ≥2 servings/week. Compared to non-consumers, adolescents who consumed chocolate of ≥2 servings/week had 0.27 standard deviation (SD) longer LTL (p = 0.014). Higher chocolate consumption was associated with increased apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) (p = 0.038) and ApoA1/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.046). Moreover, higher ApoA1/HDL levels were correlated with longer LTL (p = 0.026). CONCLUSION:Adolescents who consume 2 servings/week or more of chocolate candy have longer LTL compared with non-consumers, and ApoA1/HDL pathway may be involved in this relationship.
背景: 巧克力摄入已显示对心脏代谢健康有益。巧克力是否对细胞老化有任何影响仍然是未知的。我们旨在检验青少年较高的巧克力摄入量与较长的白细胞端粒长度 (LTL) 相关的假设。 方法: 共 660 名青少年 (年龄 14 ~ 18 岁) 纳入分析。通过 7 天、 24 小时的饮食回顾评估巧克力摄入量，并分为三组,
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Preterm birth is a risk factor for elevated blood pressure in childhood and the development of hypertension and cardiometabolic disease in adulthood; however, mechanisms for the development of both are poorly understood. Rapid weight gain early in childhood may serve as a driver directly and indirectly through cortisol levels found to be elevated in early childhood in individuals born preterm. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect sizes of the relationships between weight gain and blood pressure in toddlers born very preterm. A secondary aim was to note any mediating effect of cortisol on the relationships between weight gain and blood pressure. METHODS:A cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 36 toddlers who were born very preterm was used to examine the relationships between postnatal weight gain, cortisol, and blood pressure at follow-up. RESULTS:Many of the participants experienced rapid weight gain in the first 12 months of life. Mean systolic and diastolic readings were 94 and 56.6, respectively. Diastolic blood pressure readings were obtained from 23 participants and the majority were elevated. Weight gain was associated with diastolic blood pressure with a medium effect size. A mediating role with cortisol was not supported.Although findings need to be validated in a larger sample, the blood pressure elevations in this sample were alarming. If readings continue to amplify as these children age, the fact that elevations are already present during the toddler period could indicate more significant cardiovascular disease in adulthood for this population. Rapid weight gain in early life may be a driver for elevated blood pressure even during early childhood in individuals born preterm.
METHODS:This article presents a case series of n = 21 models of fetal cardiovascular anatomies obtained from post mortem microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) data. The case series includes a broad range of diagnoses (e.g., tetralogy of Fallot, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, dextrocardia, double outlet right ventricle, atrio-ventricular septal defect) and cases also had a range of associated extra-cardiac malformations (e.g., VACTERL syndrome, central nervous system anomalies, renal anomalies). All cases were successfully reconstructed from the microfocus computed tomography data, demonstrating the feasibility of the technique and of the protocols, including in-house printing with a desktop 3D printer (Form2, Formlabs). All models were printed in 1:1 scale as well as with the 5-fold magnification, to provide insight into the intra-cardiac structures. Possible uses of the models include education and training.
METHODS:Abstract Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects ~ 1% of live births and is the most common birth defect. Although the genetic contribution to the CHD has been long suspected, it has only been well established recently. De novo variants are estimated to contribute to approximately 8% of sporadic CHD. Methods CHD is genetically heterogeneous, making pathway enrichment analysis an effective approach to explore and statistically validate CHD-associated genes. In this study, we performed novel gene and pathway enrichment analyses of high-impact de novo variants in the recently published whole-exome sequencing (WES) data generated from a cohort of CHD 2645 parent-offspring trios to identify new CHD-causing candidate genes and mutations. We performed rigorous variant- and gene-level filtrations to identify potentially damaging variants, followed by enrichment analyses and gene prioritization. Results Our analyses revealed 23 novel genes that are likely to cause CHD, including HSP90AA1, ROCK2, IQGAP1, and CHD4, and sharing biological functions, pathways, molecular interactions, and properties with known CHD-causing genes. Conclusions Ultimately, these findings suggest novel genes that are likely to be contributing to CHD pathogenesis.