Anatomical substrates of symptom remission and persistence in young adults with childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
- 作者列表："Luo Y","Halperin JM","Li X
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that emerges in childhood and persists into adulthood in a sizeable portion of afflicted individuals. The persistence of ADHD symptoms elevates the risk of adverse outcomes that result in substantial individual and societal burden. The objective of this study was to delineate neuroanatomical substrates associated with the diversity of adult outcomes of childhood ADHD, which may have considerable value for development of novel interventions that target mechanisms associated with recovery. Structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging data from 32 young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD combined-type during childhood and 35 group-matched controls were analyzed. Adults with childhood ADHD were divided into 16 remitters and 16 persisters based on DSM-IV criteria. Compared to the controls, ADHD probands showed significantly reduced gray matter (GM) volume in right putamen and white matter (WM) volume in left parieto-insular fiber tracts. Within the ADHD probands, the remitters, as compared to persisters, showed significantly greater volume of right hippocampo-frontal and right parieto-insular WM fiber tracts, and those connecting caudate with the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and insular cortices. Among ADHD probands, increased fractional anisotropy value of left caudate-parietal tract was significantly correlated with reduced hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. These findings suggest that optimal structural development in the WM tracts that connect caudate with cortical areas, especially in the caudate-parietal path, may play an important role in symptom remission in young adults with childhood ADHD.
注意缺陷/多动障碍 (ADHD) 是一种高度流行的神经发育障碍，在儿童期出现，并在相当一部分受累个体中持续至成年。ADHD 症状的持续存在会增加不良结局的风险，导致巨大的个人和社会负担。本研究的目的是描绘与儿童 ADHD 成人结局多样性相关的神经解剖学底物，这可能对开发针对与恢复相关机制的新型干预措施具有相当大的价值。分析了 32 例儿童期诊断为 ADHD 混合型的年轻成人和 35 例组匹配对照的结构性 MRI 和弥散张量成像数据。根据 DSM-IV 标准，将儿童期 ADHD 成人分为 16 例归集者和 16 例持久性者。与对照组相比，ADHD 先证者右侧壳核灰质 (GM) 体积显著减少，左侧副岛状纤维束白质 (WM) 体积显著减少。在 ADHD 先证者中，与持续性者相比，归集者显示出右侧海马额叶和右侧副岛叶纤维束的体积显著更大，以及那些连接尾状肌和额叶的纤维束。顶叶、枕叶、颞部和岛叶皮质。在 ADHD 先证者中，左侧尾状核-顶叶束的部分各向异性值增加与多动/冲动症状减少显著相关。这些发现表明，连接尾状核和皮质区域的 WM 束的最佳结构发育，特别是在尾状核-顶叶路径, 可能在儿童 ADHD 的年轻成人症状缓解中起重要作用。
METHODS:Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychosocially impairing and cost-intensive mental disorder, with first symptoms occurring in early childhood. It can usually be diagnosed reliably at preschool age. Early detection of children with ADHD symptoms and an early, age-appropriate treatment are needed in order to reduce symptoms, prevent secondary problems and enable a better school start. Despite existing ADHD treatment research and guideline recommendations for the treatment of ADHD in preschool children, there is still a need to optimise individualised treatment strategies in order to improve outcomes. Therefore, the ESCApreschool study (Evidence-Based, Stepped Care of ADHD in Preschool Children aged 3 years and 0 months to 6 years and 11 months of age (3;0 to 6;11 years) addresses the treatment of 3–6-year-old preschool children with elevated ADHD symptoms within a large multicentre trial. The study aims to investigate the efficacy of an individualised stepwise-intensifying treatment programme. Methods The target sample size of ESCApreschool is 200 children (boys and girls) aged 3;0 to 6;11 years with an ADHD diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) or a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) plus additional substantial ADHD symptoms. The first step of the adaptive, stepped care design used in ESCApreschool consists of a telephone-assisted self-help (TASH) intervention for parents. Participants are randomised to either the TASH group or a waiting control group. The treatment in step 2 depends on the outcome of step 1: TASH responders without significant residual ADHD/ODD symptoms receive booster sessions of TASH. Partial or non-responders of step 1 are randomised again to either parent management and preschool teacher training or treatment as usual. Discussion The ESCApreschool trial aims to improve knowledge about individualised treatment strategies for preschool children with ADHD following an adaptive stepped care approach, and to provide a scientific basis for individualised medicine for preschool children with ADHD in routine clinical care. Trial registration The trial was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) as a Current Controlled Trial under DRKS00008971 on 1 October 2015. This manuscript is based on protocol version 3 (14 October 2016).
METHODS:Prefrontal volume reductions commonly are demonstrated in ADHD, but the literature examining prefrontal volume in reading disorders (RD) is scant despite their also having executive functioning (EF) deficits. Furthermore, only a few anatomical studies have examined the frontal lobes in comorbid RD/ADHD, though they have EF deficits similar to RD and ADHD. Hence, we examined frontal gyri volume in children with RD, ADHD, RD/ADHD and controls, as well as their relationship to EF for gyri found to differ between groups. We found right inferior frontal (RIF) volume was smaller in ADHD, and smaller volume was related to worse behavioral regulation. Left superior frontal (LSF) volume was larger in RD than ADHD, and its size was negatively related to basic reading ability. Left middle frontal (LMF) volume was largest in RD/ADHD overall. Further, its volume was not related to basic reading nor behavioral regulation but was related to worse attentional control, suggesting some specificity in its EF relationship. When examining hypotheses on the etiology of RD/ADHD, RD/ADHD was commensurate with ADHD in RIF volume and both RD and ADHD in LSF volume (being midway between the groups), consistent with the common etiology hypothesis. Nevertheless, they also had an additional gyrus affected: LMF, consistent with the cognitive subtype hypothesis in its specificity to RD/ADHD. The few other frontal aMRI studies on RD/ADHD supported both hypotheses as well. Given this, future research should continue to focus on frontal morphology in its endeavors to find neurobiological contributors to the comorbidity between RD and ADHD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Mechanistic endophenotypes can inform process models of psychopathology and aid interpretation of genetic risk factors. Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes are associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and provide clues to its development. This study evaluates whether common genetic risk for ADHD is associated with total brain volume (TBV) and hypothesized subcortical structures in children. METHODS:Children 7-15 years old were recruited for a case-control study (N = 312, N = 199 ADHD). Children were assessed with a multi-informant, best-estimate diagnostic procedure and motion-corrected MRI measured brain volumes. Polygenic scores were computed based on discovery data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (N = 19 099 ADHD, N = 34 194 controls) and the ENIGMA + CHARGE consortium (N = 26 577). RESULTS:ADHD was associated with smaller TBV, and altered volumes of caudate, cerebellum, putamen, and thalamus after adjustment for TBV; however, effects were larger and statistically reliable only in boys. TBV was associated with an ADHD polygenic score [β = -0.147 (-0.27 to -0.03)], and mediated a small proportion of the effect of polygenic risk on ADHD diagnosis (average ACME = 0.0087, p = 0.012). This finding was stronger in boys (average ACME = 0.019, p = 0.008). In addition, we confirm genetic variation associated with whole brain volume, via an intracranial volume polygenic score. CONCLUSION:Common genetic risk for ADHD is not expressed primarily as developmental alterations in subcortical brain volumes, but appears to alter brain development in other ways, as evidenced by TBV differences. This is among the first demonstrations of this effect using molecular genetic data. Potential sex differences in these effects warrant further examination.