Characteristics and outcomes of RET-rearranged Korean non-small cell lung cancer patients in real-world practice.
真实世界实践中 RET 重排韩国非小细胞肺癌患者的特征和结局。
- 作者列表："Lee J","Ku BM","Shim JH","La Choi Y","Sun JM","Lee SH","Ahn JS","Park K","Ahn MJ
OBJECTIVE:Since the first discovery of rearranged during transfection (RET) fusion in lung adenocarcinoma in 2011, two tyrosine kinase inhibitors, namely vandetanib and cabozantinib, are currently available. Despite favorable outcomes in systemic control, the intracranial therapeutic response remains insufficient. In this study, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with RET rearrangements were analyzed. METHODS:Patients with NSCLC harboring RET fusion who received treatment between January 2006 and January 2018 were analyzed. RET rearrangement was identified by FISH or NGS. RESULTS:A total of 59 patients were identified. About half of the patients were female (47.5%) and never smokers (50.9%). Most patients had adenocarcinoma (89.8%). A total of 17 patients (28.8%) had an intracranial lesion at the initial diagnosis of stage IV disease, and 11 additional patients (18.6%) developed intracranial metastases during follow-up. The median time to development of intracranial metastases was 19.0 months (95% CI: 9.6-28.5), resulting in a >60% cumulative incidence of brain metastasis at 24 months. The systemic efficacy of pemetrexed-based regimens was favorable with progression-free survival of 9.0 (95% CI: 6.9-11.2) and OS of 24.1 (95% CI: 15.2-33.0) months. The median progression-free survival for vandetanib and immunotherapy was 2.9 (95% CI: 2.0-3.8) and 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6-2.6) months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Given the likelihood of RET-rearranged NSCLC progressing to intracranial metastases and the absence of apparent clinical benefit of currently available targeted or immunotherapeutic agents, development of novel treatment with higher selectivity and better penetration of the blood-brain barrier remains a priority.
目的: 自 2011年首次在肺腺癌中发现转染期间重排 (RET) 融合以来，目前已有两种酪氨酸激酶抑制剂，即凡德他尼和卡博替尼。尽管全身控制结果良好，但颅内治疗反应仍然不足。本研究对 RET 重排的非小细胞肺癌 (NSCLC) 患者的临床特征和转归进行了分析。 方法: 分析 2006年1月至 2018年1月接受治疗的携带 RET 融合的 NSCLC 患者。RET 重排通过 FISH 或 NGS 鉴定。 结果: 共确定 59 例患者。大约一半的患者是女性 (47.5%) 和从不吸烟者 (50.9%)。大多数患者为腺癌 (89.8%)。共有 17 例患者 (28.8%) 在最初诊断为 IV 期疾病时出现颅内病变，另外 11 例患者 (18.6%) 在随访期间发生颅内转移。发生颅内转移的中位时间为 19.0 个月 (95% CI: 9.6-28.5)，导致 24 个月时脑转移的累积发生率> 60%。基于培美曲塞的方案的全身疗效良好，无进展生存期为 9.0 (95% CI: 6.9-11.2)，OS 为 24.1 (95% CI: 15.2-33.0) 个月。凡德他尼和免疫治疗的中位无进展生存期分别为 2.9 (95% CI: 2.0-3.8) 和 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6-2.6) 个月。 结论: 考虑到 RET 重排 NSCLC 进展为颅内转移的可能性，以及目前可用的靶向或免疫治疗药物缺乏明显的临床获益, 开发具有更高选择性和更好渗透血脑屏障的新型治疗仍然是一个优先事项。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The objectives of this study are to assess the chest drainage volumes of patients undergoing anatomic resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma and to determine the safety and effectiveness of administering enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis. METHODS:A total of 77 patients were included in the study. A study was conducted on the first group of 42 patients in which enoxaparin prophylaxis (enoxaparin, 40 mg) was subcutaneously injected once a day for a period of three days after the patients underwent anatomic pulmonary resection between March 2016 and March 2018. An enoxaparin-free group was identified and included 35 patients who received no enoxaparin prophylaxis after undergoing anatomic pulmonary resection between February 2013 and February 2016. We compared the changes in hemoglobin (Hb) levels, postoperative 3-day drainage volume, transfusion volume, pulmonary complications and length of stay between the two groups. RESULTS:No differences in postoperative Hb levels, chest drainage volume, transfusion volume, postoperative complications, and length of stay were observed between the two groups. Deep-vein thrombosis was noted in a patient in the enoxaparin-free group. No major bleeding was noted in either group. CONCLUSION:We found that for patients undergoing anatomic resection of primary lung cancer, the blood transfusion and chest drainage volumes did not differ, regardless of whether the patients were given enoxaparin. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of low-molecular-weight heparin on chest tube drainage volume for patients undergoing anatomic resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma has not been investigated before.
METHODS::The aim of the present study was to compare the safety and efficacy of cryoablation (CA) and microwave ablation (MWA) as treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC treated with CA (n=45) or MWA (n=56) were enrolled in the present study. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); the secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) time and adverse events (AEs). The median PFS times between the two groups were not significantly different (P=0.36): CA, 10 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.5-12.4] vs. MWA, 11 months (95% CI, 9.5-12.4). The OS times between the two groups were also not significantly different (P=0.07): CA, 27.5 months (95% CI, 22.8-31.2 months) vs. MWA, 18 months (95% CI, 12.5-23.5). For larger tumors (>3 cm), patients treated with MWA had significantly longer median PFS (P=0.04; MWA, 10.5 months vs. CA, 7.0 months) and OS times (P=0.04; MWA, 24.5 months vs. CA, 14.5 months) compared patients treated with CA. However, for smaller tumors (≤3 cm), median PFS (P=0.79; MWA, 11.0 months vs. CA, 13.0 months) and OS times (P=0.39; MWA, 30.0 months vs. CA, 26.5 months) between the two groups did not differ significantly. The incidence rates of AEs were similar in the two groups (P>0.05). The number of applicators, tumor size and length of the lung traversed by applicators were associated with a higher risk of pneumothorax and intra-pulmonary hemorrhage in the two groups. Treatment with CA resulted in significantly less intraprocedural pain compared with treatment with MWA (P=0.001). Overall, the present study demonstrated that CA and MWA were comparably safe and effective procedures for the treatment of small tumors. However, treatment with MWA was superior compared with CA for the treatment of large tumors.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:BRAF mutations occurring in 1%-5% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are therapeutic targets for these cancers but the impact of the exact mutation on clinical activity is unclear. The French National Cancer Institute (INCA) launched the AcSé vemurafenib trial to assess the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in cancers with various BRAF mutations. We herein report the results of the NSCLC cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Tumour samples were screened for BRAF mutations in INCA-certified molecular genetic centres. Patients with BRAF-mutated tumours progressing after ≥1 line of treatment were proposed vemurafenib 960 mg twice daily. Between October 2014 and July 2018, 118 patients were enrolled in the NSCLC cohort. The primary outcome was the objective response rate (ORR) assessed every 8 weeks (RECIST v1.1). A sequential Bayesian approach was planned with an inefficacy bound of 10% for ORR. If no early stopping occurred, the treatment was of interest if the estimated ORR was ≥30% with a 90% probability. Secondary outcomes were tolerance, response duration, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Of the 118 patients enrolled, 101 presented with a BRAFV600 mutation and 17 with BRAFnonV600 mutations; the median follow-up was 23.9 months. In the BRAFnonV600 cohort, no objective response was observed and this cohort was stopped. In the BRAFV600 cohort, 43/96 patients had objective responses. The mean Bayesian estimated success rate was 44.9% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 35.2%-54.8%]. The ORR had a 99.9% probability of being ≥30%. Median response duration was 6.4 months, median PFS was 5.2 months (95% CI 3.8-6.8), and OS was 10 months (95% CI 6.8-15.7). The vemurafenib safety profile was consistent with previous publications. CONCLUSION:Routine biomarker screening of NSCLC should include BRAFV600 mutations. Vemurafenib monotherapy is effective for treating patients with BRAFV600-mutated NSCLC but not those with BRAFnonV600 mutations. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02304809.