- 作者列表："González-Domínguez I","Puente-Massaguer E","Cervera L","Gòdia F
:Virus-like particles (VLPs) have emerged as a powerful scaffold for antigen presentation and delivery strategies. Compared to single protein-based therapeutics, quality assessment requires a higher degree of refinement due to the structure of VLPs and their similar properties to extracellular vesicles (EVs). Advances in the field of nanotechnology with single particle and high-resolution analysis techniques provide appealing approaches to VLP characterization. In this study, six different biophysical methods have been assessed for the characterization of HIV-1-based VLPs produced in mammalian and insect cell platforms. Sample preparation and equipment set-up were optimized for the six strategies evaluated. Electron Microscopy (EM) disclosed the presence of several types of EVs within VLP preparations and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) resulted in the best technique to resolve the VLP ultrastructure. The use of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (SRFM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and flow virometry enabled the high throughput quantification of VLPs. Interestingly, differences in the determination of nanoparticle concentration were observed between techniques. Moreover, NTA and flow virometry allowed the quantification of both EVs and VLPs within the same experiment while analyzing particle size distribution (PSD), simultaneously. These results provide new insights into the use of different analytical tools to monitor the production of nanoparticle-based biologicals and their associated contaminants.
: 病毒样颗粒 (VLPs) 已经成为抗原呈递和递送策略的强大支架。与单一基于蛋白质的治疗药物相比，由于 VLPs 的结构及其与细胞外囊泡 (EVs) 相似的特性，质量评估需要更高程度的细化。单颗粒和高分辨率分析技术纳米技术领域的进展为 VLP 表征提供了吸引人的方法。在这项研究中，六种不同的生物物理方法已经评估了在哺乳动物和昆虫细胞平台中产生的 HIV-1-based VLPs 的表征。针对评价的六种策略优化了样品制备和设备设置。电子显微镜 (EM) 揭示了 VLP 制剂中存在几种类型的 EVs，低温透射电子显微镜 (cryo-TEM) 导致了解析 VLP 超微结构的最佳技术。超分辨率荧光显微镜 (SRFM) 、纳米颗粒跟踪分析 (NTA) 和流式病毒学的使用实现了 VLPs 的高通量定量。有趣的是，在技术之间观察到纳米颗粒浓度测定的差异。此外，NTA 和流式病毒学允许在同时分析粒径分布 (PSD) 的同时对同一实验中的 EVs 和 VLPs 进行定量。这些结果为使用不同的分析工具来监测基于纳米颗粒的生物制品及其相关污染物的生产提供了新的见解。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Ultrasound has been demonstrated to accurately diagnose rectal deep endometriosis (DE) and pouch of Douglas (POD) obliteration. The role of ultrasound in the assessment of patients who have undergone surgery for rectal DE and POD obliteration has not been evaluated. AIM:To describe the transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) findings of patients who have undergone rectal surgery for DE. MATERIALS AND METHODS:An observational cross-sectional study at a tertiary care centre in Sydney, Australia between January and April 2017. Patients previously treated for rectal DE (low anterior resection vs rectal shaving/disc excision) were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire on their current symptoms. On TVS, POD state and rectal DE were assessed. Correlating recurrence of POD obliteration and/or rectal DE to surgery type and symptoms was done. RESULTS:Fifty-six patients were contacted; 22/56 (39.3%) attended for the study visit. Average interval of surgery to study visit was 52.8 ± 24.6 months. Surgery type breakdown was as follows: low anterior resection (56%) and rectal shaving/disc excision (44%). The prevalence of POD obliteration was 16/22 (72.7%) intraoperatively and 8/22 (36.4%) at study visit, as per the sliding sign. Nine patients (39.1%) had evidence on TVS of recurrent rectal DE. Recurrence of POD obliteration and rectal DE was not associated with surgery type or symptomatology. CONCLUSION:Despite surgery for rectal DE, many patients have a negative sliding sign on TVS, representing POD obliteration, and rectal DE. Our numbers are too small to correlate with the surgery type or their current symptoms.
METHODS::Minimally invasive surgery for complex endometriosis requires preoperative planning that intimately connects the gynecologic surgeon to the radiologist. Understanding the surgeon's perspective to endometriosis treatment facilitates a productive relationship that ultimately benefits the patient. We examine minimally invasive surgery for endometriosis and the key radiologic information which enable the surgeon to successfully negotiate patient counseling, preoperative planning, and an interdisciplinary approach to surgery.
METHODS:STUDY OBJECTIVE:Prior research collectively shows that endometriosis is inversely related to women's adiposity. The aim of this study was to assess whether this inverse relationship holds true by disease severity and typology. DESIGN:Cross sectional study among women with no prior diagnosis of endometriosis. SETTING:Fourteen clinical centers in Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California. PATIENTS:Four hundred and ninety five women, ages 18-44 years, were enrolled in the operative cohort of the Endometriosis, Natural History, Diagnosis, and Outcomes (ENDO) Study. INTERVENTIONS:Gynecologic laparoscopy/laparotomy, regardless of clinical indication. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Participants underwent anthropometric assessments, body composition, and body fat distribution ratios before surgery. Surgeons completed a standardized operative report immediately after surgery to capture revised ASRM staging (I to IV) and typology of disease (superficial [SE], ovarian endometrioma [OE], and deep infiltrating endometriosis [DIE]). Linear mixed models, taking into account within-clinical-center correlation were used to generate least square means (95% confidence intervals) to assess differences in adiposity measures by endometriosis stage (no endometriosis, I-IV) and typology (no endometriosis, SE, DIE, OE, OE + DIE) adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and parity. While the majority of confidence intervals were wide and overlapping, three general impressions emerged: 1) women with versus without incident endometriosis had the lowest anthropometric/body composition indicators; 2) women with stage I or IV had lower indicators compared to women with stage II or III; and 3) women with OE and/or DIE tended to have the lowest indicators, while women with SE had the highest indicators. CONCLUSION:Our research highlights that the relationship between women's adiposity and endometriosis severity and typology may be more complicated than prior research indicates.