Goals of Treatment for Improved Survival in Primary Biliary Cholangitis: Treatment Target Should Be Bilirubin Within the Normal Range and Normalization of Alkaline Phosphatase.
- 作者列表："Murillo Perez CF","Harms MH","Lindor KD","van Buuren HR","Hirschfield GM","Corpechot C","van der Meer AJ","Feld JJ","Gulamhusein A","Lammers WJ","Ponsioen CY","Carbone M","Mason AL","Mayo MJ","Invernizzi P","Battezzati PM","Floreani A","Lleo A","Nevens F","Kowdley KV","Bruns T","Dalekos GN","Gatselis NK","Thorburn D","Trivedi PJ","Verhelst X","Parés A","Janssen HLA","Hansen BE","GLOBAL PBC Study Group.
OBJECTIVES:In primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are widely established as independent predictors of prognosis. Current treatment goals do not aim for normalization of surrogate markers because their association with survival has not been defined. METHODS:The patient cohort from the GLOBAL PBC Study Group was used, comprising of long-term follow-up data from European and North American centers. Ursodeoxycholic acid-treated and untreated patients with bilirubin levels ≤1 × upper limit of normal (ULN) at baseline or 1 year were included. The association of normal ALP with transplant-free survival was assessed in a subgroup with ALP ≤1.67 × ULN at 1 year. Optimal thresholds of bilirubin and ALP to predict liver transplantation (LT) or death were evaluated. RESULTS:There were 2,281 patients included in the time zero cohort and 2,555 patients in the 1-year cohort. The bilirubin threshold with the highest ability to predict LT or death at 1 year was 0.6 × ULN (hazard ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.69-2.66, P < 0.001). The 10-year survival rates of patients with bilirubin ≤0.6 × ULN and >0.6 × ULN were 91.3% and 79.2%, respectively (P < 0.001). The risk for LT or death was stable below the bilirubin levels of 0.6 × ULN, yet increased beyond this threshold. Ursodeoxycholic acid-induced reduction in bilirubin below this threshold was associated with an 11% improvement in 10-year survival. Furthermore, ALP normalization was optimal, with 10-year survival rates of 93.2% in patients with ALP ≤ 1 × ULN and 86.1% in those with ALP 1.0-1.67 × ULN. DISCUSSION:Attaining bilirubin levels ≤0.6 × ULN or normal ALP are associated with the lowest risk for LT or death in patients with PBC. This has important implications for treatment targets.
目的: 在原发性胆汁性胆管炎 (PBC) 中，胆红素和碱性磷酸酶 (ALP) 被广泛认为是预后的独立预测因子。目前的治疗目标不旨在替代标志物的正常化，因为它们与生存期的相关性尚未确定。 方法: 使用来自全球 PBC 研究组的患者队列，包括来自欧洲和北美中心的长期随访数据。纳入基线或 1 年胆红素水平 ≤ 1 × 正常上限 (ULN) 的熊去氧胆酸治疗和未治疗患者。在 1 年时 ALP ≤ 1.67 × ULN 的亚组中评估正常 ALP 与无移植生存率的相关性。评估胆红素和 ALP 预测肝移植 (LT) 或死亡的最佳阈值。 结果: 有 2,281 例患者纳入时间零队列，2,555 例患者纳入 1 年队列。1 年时预测 LT 或死亡能力最高的胆红素阈值为 0.6 × ULN (风险比 2.12，95% CI 1.69-2.66，P 0.6 × ULN 患者的 10 年生存率分别为 91.3% 和 79.2% (P
METHODS:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Lifetime risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC) in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) exceeds 20% and BTC is currently the leading cause of death in PSC patients. To open new avenues for management, we aimed to delineate novel and clinically relevant genomic and pathological features of a large panel of PSC-associated BTC (PSC-BTC). APPROACH & RESULTS:We analysed formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tumor tissue from 186 PSC-BTC patients from 11 centers in eight countries with all anatomical locations included. We performed tumor DNA sequencing at 42 clinically relevant genetic loci to detect mutations, translocations and copy number variations, along with histomorphological and immunohistochemical characterization. Irrespective of the anatomical localization, PSC-BTC exhibited a uniform molecular and histological characteristic similar to extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We detected a high frequency of genomic alterations typical of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, e.g. TP53 (35.5%), KRAS (28.0%), CDKN2A (14.5%), and SMAD4 (11.3%), as well as potentially druggable mutations (e.g. HER2/ERBB2). We found a high frequency of non-typical/non-ductal histomorphological subtypes (55.2%) and of the usually rare BTC precursor lesion, intraductal papillary neoplasia (18.3%) CONCLUSION: Genomic alterations in PSC-BTC include a significant number of putative actionable therapeutic targets. Notably, PSC-BTC show a distinct extrahepatic morpho-molecular phenotype, independent of the anatomical location of the tumor. These findings advance our understanding of PSC-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis and provide strong incentives for clinical trials to test genome-based personalized treatment strategies in PSC-BTC.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The impact of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity on long-term outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is unknown. We examined the impact of post-LT IBD activity on clinically significant outcomes. METHODS:One hundred twelve patients undergoing LT for PSC from 2 centers were studied for a median of 7 years. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their IBD activity after LT: no IBD, mild IBD, and moderate to severe IBD. Patients were classified as having moderate to severe IBD if they met at least 1 of 3 criteria: (i) Mayo 2 or 3 colitis or Simple Endoscopic Score-Crohn's Disease ≥7 on endoscopy; (ii) acute flare of IBD necessitating steroid rescue therapy; or (iii) post-LT colectomy for medically refractory IBD. RESULTS:Moderate to severe IBD at any time post-transplant was associated with a higher risk of Clostridium difficile infection (27% vs 8% mild IBD vs 8% no IBD; P = 0.02), colorectal cancer/high-grade dysplasia (21% vs 3% both groups; P = 0.004), post-LT colectomy (33% vs 3% vs 0%) and rPSC (64% vs 18% vs 20%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that moderate to severe IBD increased the risk of both rPSC (relative risk [RR], 8.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.81-27.59; P < 0.001) and colorectal cancer/high-grade dysplasia (RR, 10.45; 95% CI, 3.55-22.74; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Moderate to severe IBD at any time post-LT is associated with a higher risk of rPSC and colorectal neoplasia compared with mild IBD and no IBD. Patients with no IBD and mild IBD have similar post-LT outcomes. Future prospective studies are needed to determine if more intensive treatment of moderate to severe IBD improves long-term outcomes in patients undergoing LT for PSC.
METHODS::T cells from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) show a prominent IL-17 response upon stimulation with bacteria or fungi, yet the reasons for this dominant TH17 response in PSC are not clear. Here, we analyzed the potential role of monocytes in microbial recognition and in skewing the T cell response towards Th17. Monocytes and T cells from blood and livers of PSC patients and controls were analyzed ex vivo and in vitro using trans-well experiments with cholangiocytes. Cytokine production was measured using flow cytometry, ELISA, RNA in situ hybridization and quantitative real time PCR. Genetic polymorphisms were obtained from Immunochip analysis. Following ex vivo stimulation with PMA/Ionomycin, PSC patients showed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A-producing peripheral blood CD4+ T cells compared to PBC patients and healthy controls, indicating increased Th17 differentiation in vivo. Upon stimulation with microbes, monocytes from PSC patients produced significantly more IL-1β and IL-6, cytokines known to drive Th17 cell differentiation. Moreover, microbe-activated monocytes induced the secretion of Th17 and monocyte-recruiting chemokines CCL-20 and CCL-2 in human primary cholangiocytes. In livers of patients with PSC cirrhosis, CD14hi CD16int and CD14lo CD16hi monocytes/macrophages were increased compared to alcoholic cirrhosis and monocytes were found to be located around bile ducts. Conclusion: PSC patients show increased Th17 differentiation already in vivo. Microbe-stimulated monocytes drive Th17 differentiation in vitro and induce cholangiocytes to produce chemokines mediating recruitment of Th17 cells and more monocytes into portal tracts. Taken together, these results point to a pathogenic role of monocytes in patients with PSC.