- 作者列表："Kok B","Whitlock R","Ferguson T","Kowalczewski J","Tangri N","Tandon P
OBJECTIVES:Patients with cirrhosis experience a worsened quality of life; this may be quantified by the use of health-related QoL (HRQoL) constructs, such as the chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ) and EuroQoL Group-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS). In this multicenter prospective study, we aimed to evaluate HRQoL as a predictor of unplanned hospital admission/early mortality, identify HRQoL domains most affected in cirrhosis, and identify predictors of low HRQoL in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS:Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine independent association of HRQoL with primary outcome and identify predictors of low HRQoL. HRQoL was also compared with population norms. RESULTS:In this cohort of 402 patients with cirrhosis, mean model for end-stage liver disease was 12.5 (4.9). More than 50% of the cohort had low HRQoL, considerably lower than population norms. HRQoL (measured by either CLDQ or EQ-VAS) was independently associated with the primary outcome of short-term unplanned hospitalization/mortality. Every 1-point increase in the CLDQ and every 10-point increase in the EQ-VAS reduced the risk of reaching this outcome by 30% and 13%, respectively. Patients with cirrhosis had lower HRQoL scores than population norms across all domains of the CLDQ. Younger age, female sex, current smoker, lower serum albumin, frailty, and ascites were independently associated with low CLDQ. DISCUSSION:Patients with cirrhosis experience poor HRQoL. HRQoL is independently associated with increased mortality/unplanned hospitalizations in patients with cirrhosis and could be an easy-to-use prognostic screen that patients could complete in the waiting room before their appointment.
目的: 肝硬化患者的生活质量恶化; 这可以通过使用健康相关 QoL (HRQoL) 结构来量化，例如慢性肝病问卷 (CLDQ) 和 EuroQoL 组-视觉模拟量表 (EQ-VAS)。在这项多中心前瞻性研究中，我们旨在评估 HRQoL 作为计划外入院/早期死亡率的预测因子，确定肝硬化中受影响最大的 HRQoL 领域, 并确定肝硬化患者低 HRQoL 的预测因子。 方法: 采用多变量 logistic 回归确定 HRQoL 与主要结局的独立相关性，并确定低 HRQoL 的预测因子。HRQoL 也与人群规范进行了比较。 结果: 在 402 例肝硬化患者的队列中，终末期肝病的平均模型为 12.5 (4.9)。超过 50% 的队列具有较低的 HRQoL，大大低于人群规范。HRQoL (通过 CLDQ 或 EQ-VAS 测量) 与短期计划外住院/死亡率的主要结局独立相关。CLDQ 每增加 1 分和 EQ-VAS 每增加 10 分，达到该结果的风险分别降低 30% 和 13%。肝硬化患者的 HRQoL 评分低于 CLDQ 所有领域的人群规范。年轻、女性、目前吸烟、低血清白蛋白、虚弱和腹水与低 CLDQ 独立相关。 讨论: 肝硬化患者 HRQoL 较差。HRQoL 与肝硬化患者死亡率增加/计划外住院独立相关，可能是一个易于使用的预后屏幕，患者可以在预约前在候诊室完成。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Opioids are often prescribed for pain in cirrhosis and may increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIMS:To assess the association between opioids and HE in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:We used the IQVIA PharMetrics (Durham, NC) database to identify patients aged 18-64 years with cirrhosis. We excluded patients with any decompensation event from 1 year before cirrhosis diagnosis to 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis. Over the 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis, we determined the duration of continuous opioid use and classified use into short term (1-89 days) and chronic (90-180 days). We assessed whether patients developed HE over the subsequent year (ie 6-18 months after cirrhosis diagnosis). We used a landmark analysis and performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between opioid use and HE, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS:The cohort included 6451 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 23.3% and 4.7% had short-term and chronic opioid prescriptions respectively. Over the subsequent year, HE occurred in 6.3% patients with chronic opioid prescriptions, 5.0% with short-term opioid prescriptions and 3.3% with no opioid prescriptions. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of HE was observed with short-term (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and chronic opioid prescriptions (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.12) compared to no opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSION:In this national cohort of privately insured patients with cirrhosis, opioid prescriptions were associated with the risk of incident HE. Opioid use should be minimised in those with cirrhosis and, when required, limited to short duration.
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive fibrosis of the liver and is a major cause of liver-related mortality. Cirrhosis is partially heritable but genetic contributions to cirrhosis have not been systemically explored. Here, we carry out association analyses with cirrhosis in two large biobanks and determine the effects of cirrhosis associated variants on multiple human disease/traits. METHODS:We carried out a genome-wide association analysis of cirrhosis as a diagnosis in UK BioBank (UKBB; 1088 cases vs. 407 873 controls) and then tested top-associating loci for replication with cirrhosis in a hospital-based cohort from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI; 875 cases of cirrhosis vs. 30 346 controls). For replicating variants or variants previously associated with cirrhosis that also affected cirrhosis in UKBB or MGI, we determined single nucleotide polymorphism effects on all other diagnoses in UKBB (PheWAS), common metabolic traits/diseases and serum/plasma metabolites. RESULTS:Unbiased genome-wide association study identified variants in/near PNPLA3 and HFE, and candidate variant analysis identified variants in/near TM6SF2, MBOAT7, SERPINA1, HSD17B13, STAT4 and IFNL4 that reproducibly affected cirrhosis. Most affected liver enzyme concentrations and/or aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index. PheWAS, metabolic trait and serum/plasma metabolite association analyses revealed effects of these variants on lipid, inflammatory and other processes including new effects on many human diseases and traits. CONCLUSIONS:We identified eight loci that reproducibly associate with population-based cirrhosis and define their diverse effects on human diseases and traits.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In recent years, it has been postulated that the rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing, especially in nosocomial SBP patients. Aim of the present work was to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and three culture-positive patients between 2007 and 2014 were compared with 81 patients between 2015 and 2017, to study the change of microbiological profiles and their clinical consequences. The cirrhosis patients with bacterascites requiring treatment were included as well. RESULTS:The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ascites were Enterobacterales (31.6%) and in Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococci (22.8%). There was a significant increase in MDROs (22.3% ICU 40.7%, P = .048), accompanied by an increased incidence of sepsis (from 21.4% to 37.0%, P = .021), hepatorenal syndrome (from 40.8% to 58.0%, P = .007) and the need of catecholamine therapy (from 21.4% to 38.8%, P = .036). Nosocomial origin correlated with higher MDRO proportion, more complications and lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates in 12 commonly used antibiotics. MDROs were confirmed as an isolated predictor for inpatient mortality and complications in multivariable logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:The feeling in clinical practice that MDROs have increased in the last 11 years could be confirmed in our study in Munich, Germany. Nosocomial SBP correlated with significantly higher MDRO rates (nearly 50%) and complication rates. In our opinion, an antibiotic combination with comprehensive effect should be taken into account in nosocomial SBP patients in this region.