Silencing lncRNA Lfar1 alleviates the classical activation and pyoptosis of macrophage in hepatic fibrosis.
沉默 lncRNA Lfar1 可缓解肝纤维化中巨噬细胞的经典激活和脓毒作用。
- 作者列表："Zhang K","Shi Z","Zhang M","Dong X","Zheng L","Li G","Han X","Yao Z","Han T","Hong W
:Hepatic fibrosis is a common pathological consequence of a sustained wound healing response to continuous liver injury, characterized by increased production and accumulation of extracellular matrix. If unresolved, the fibrotic process results in organ failure, and eventually death after the development of cirrhosis. It has been suggested that macrophages play central role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis, which is related to inflammation and pyroptosis, a novel programmed and proinflammatory cell death. However, it remains far less clear if, or how, lncRNAs regulates the activation and pyroptosis of macrophage in hepatic fibrosis. In the present study, we demonstrated that the liver-enriched lncRNA Lfar1, which has been reported to promote hepatic fibrosis through inducing hepatic stellate cells activation and hepatocytes apoptosis, was dysregulated during proinflammatory M1 activation and pyroptosis of macrophage. Our study revealed that silencing lnc-Lfar1 by a lentivirus-shRNA alleviated CCl4- and BDL-induced proinflammatory M1 macrophage activation and NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis. Furthermore, the in vitro experiments demonstrated that lnc-Lfar1 knockdown significantly suppressed LPS- and IFN-γ-induced proinflammatory activation of macrophages, and inhibited LPS/ATP- and LPS/Nigericin-induced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis. Mechanistically, lnc-Lfar1 regulated LPS- and IFN-γ-induced proinflammatory activation of macrophages through the NF-ĸB pathway. All these data supported our conclusion that lnc-Lfar1 plays a vital role in controlling the activation and pyroptosis of macrophage, thus providing a possible therapeutic target against inflammation-related disorders including hepatic fibrosis.
: 肝纤维化是持续肝损伤持续伤口愈合反应的常见病理结果，其特征是细胞外基质的产生和积累增加。如果未解决，纤维化过程会导致器官衰竭，最终在肝硬化发展后死亡。有人认为，巨噬细胞在肝纤维化的进展中起着重要作用，与炎症和焦亡有关，焦亡是一种新的程序性和促炎性细胞死亡。然而，在肝纤维化中，lncRNAs 是否或如何调控巨噬细胞的活化和焦亡仍然不太清楚。在本研究中，我们证明了肝富集的 lncRNA Lfar1，其已被报道通过诱导肝星状细胞活化和肝细胞凋亡促进肝纤维化, 在促炎 M1 活化和巨噬细胞焦亡过程中失调。我们的研究揭示了慢病毒-shRNA 沉默 lnc-Lfar1 缓解了 CCl4 和 BDL 诱导的促炎 M1 巨噬细胞活化和 NLRP3 炎性体介导的焦亡。此外，体外实验表明，lnc-Lfar1 敲除显著抑制 LPS 和 IFN-γ 诱导的巨噬细胞促炎活化, 并抑制 LPS/ATP-和 LPS/Nigericin-诱导的 NLRP3 炎性体介导的焦亡。在机制上，lnc-Lfar1 通过 NF-κ b 途径调节 LPS 和 IFN-γ 诱导的巨噬细胞促炎性活化。所有这些数据支持了我们的结论，即 lnc-Lfar1 在控制巨噬细胞的活化和焦亡中起着至关重要的作用，从而为抗炎症相关疾病包括肝纤维化提供了可能的治疗靶点。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Opioids are often prescribed for pain in cirrhosis and may increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIMS:To assess the association between opioids and HE in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:We used the IQVIA PharMetrics (Durham, NC) database to identify patients aged 18-64 years with cirrhosis. We excluded patients with any decompensation event from 1 year before cirrhosis diagnosis to 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis. Over the 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis, we determined the duration of continuous opioid use and classified use into short term (1-89 days) and chronic (90-180 days). We assessed whether patients developed HE over the subsequent year (ie 6-18 months after cirrhosis diagnosis). We used a landmark analysis and performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between opioid use and HE, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS:The cohort included 6451 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 23.3% and 4.7% had short-term and chronic opioid prescriptions respectively. Over the subsequent year, HE occurred in 6.3% patients with chronic opioid prescriptions, 5.0% with short-term opioid prescriptions and 3.3% with no opioid prescriptions. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of HE was observed with short-term (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and chronic opioid prescriptions (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.12) compared to no opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSION:In this national cohort of privately insured patients with cirrhosis, opioid prescriptions were associated with the risk of incident HE. Opioid use should be minimised in those with cirrhosis and, when required, limited to short duration.
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive fibrosis of the liver and is a major cause of liver-related mortality. Cirrhosis is partially heritable but genetic contributions to cirrhosis have not been systemically explored. Here, we carry out association analyses with cirrhosis in two large biobanks and determine the effects of cirrhosis associated variants on multiple human disease/traits. METHODS:We carried out a genome-wide association analysis of cirrhosis as a diagnosis in UK BioBank (UKBB; 1088 cases vs. 407 873 controls) and then tested top-associating loci for replication with cirrhosis in a hospital-based cohort from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI; 875 cases of cirrhosis vs. 30 346 controls). For replicating variants or variants previously associated with cirrhosis that also affected cirrhosis in UKBB or MGI, we determined single nucleotide polymorphism effects on all other diagnoses in UKBB (PheWAS), common metabolic traits/diseases and serum/plasma metabolites. RESULTS:Unbiased genome-wide association study identified variants in/near PNPLA3 and HFE, and candidate variant analysis identified variants in/near TM6SF2, MBOAT7, SERPINA1, HSD17B13, STAT4 and IFNL4 that reproducibly affected cirrhosis. Most affected liver enzyme concentrations and/or aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index. PheWAS, metabolic trait and serum/plasma metabolite association analyses revealed effects of these variants on lipid, inflammatory and other processes including new effects on many human diseases and traits. CONCLUSIONS:We identified eight loci that reproducibly associate with population-based cirrhosis and define their diverse effects on human diseases and traits.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In recent years, it has been postulated that the rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing, especially in nosocomial SBP patients. Aim of the present work was to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and three culture-positive patients between 2007 and 2014 were compared with 81 patients between 2015 and 2017, to study the change of microbiological profiles and their clinical consequences. The cirrhosis patients with bacterascites requiring treatment were included as well. RESULTS:The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ascites were Enterobacterales (31.6%) and in Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococci (22.8%). There was a significant increase in MDROs (22.3% ICU 40.7%, P = .048), accompanied by an increased incidence of sepsis (from 21.4% to 37.0%, P = .021), hepatorenal syndrome (from 40.8% to 58.0%, P = .007) and the need of catecholamine therapy (from 21.4% to 38.8%, P = .036). Nosocomial origin correlated with higher MDRO proportion, more complications and lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates in 12 commonly used antibiotics. MDROs were confirmed as an isolated predictor for inpatient mortality and complications in multivariable logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:The feeling in clinical practice that MDROs have increased in the last 11 years could be confirmed in our study in Munich, Germany. Nosocomial SBP correlated with significantly higher MDRO rates (nearly 50%) and complication rates. In our opinion, an antibiotic combination with comprehensive effect should be taken into account in nosocomial SBP patients in this region.