Sex-determining region Y box 4 (SOX4) suppresses Hepatitis B virus replication by inhibiting hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α expression.
性别决定区 Y 框 4 (SOX4) 通过抑制肝细胞核因子 4 α 表达抑制乙型肝炎病毒复制。
- 作者列表："Shi S","Liu M","Xi J","Liu H","Guan G","Shen C","Guo Z","Zhang T","Xu Q","Kudereti D","Chen X","Wang J","Lu F
:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a health care crisis in the world, and a considerable number of chronic hepatitis B patients die of end-stage liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A previous study has reported that sex-determining region Y box 4 (SOX4) promotes HBV replication by binding to the AACAAAG motif in the viral genome. However, such SOX4 binding site was not found in the genome of the majority of HBV genotype strains. Further, we found that SOX4 inhibited rather than promoted the replication of most HBV strains. In line with this, HBV replication was significantly enhanced when the endogenous SOX4 was knocked down. Moreover, we demonstrated that the SOX4-induced suppression of HBV replication was mainly mediated by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). Taken together, our findings suggest that SOX4 plays an important antiviral role by inhibiting HNF4α expression in most HBV strains.
: 乙型肝炎病毒 (HBV) 感染仍然是全球的医疗保健危机，相当数量的慢性乙型肝炎患者死于终末期肝病, 包括肝硬化和肝细胞癌。先前的一项研究报道，性别决定区 Y 框 4 (SOX4) 通过结合病毒基因组中的 aacaag 基序促进 HBV 复制。然而，在大多数 HBV 基因型菌株的基因组中没有发现这样的 SOX4 结合位点。此外，我们发现 SOX4 抑制而不是促进大多数 HBV 菌株的复制。与此相一致，当内源性 SOX4 被击倒时，HBV 复制显著增强。此外，我们证明 HBV 复制的 SOX4-induced 抑制主要是由肝细胞核因子 4 α (hnf4 α) 介导的。总之，我们的研究结果表明，SOX4 通过抑制大多数 HBV 菌株中的 hnf4 α 表达发挥重要的抗病毒作用。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Opioids are often prescribed for pain in cirrhosis and may increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIMS:To assess the association between opioids and HE in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:We used the IQVIA PharMetrics (Durham, NC) database to identify patients aged 18-64 years with cirrhosis. We excluded patients with any decompensation event from 1 year before cirrhosis diagnosis to 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis. Over the 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis, we determined the duration of continuous opioid use and classified use into short term (1-89 days) and chronic (90-180 days). We assessed whether patients developed HE over the subsequent year (ie 6-18 months after cirrhosis diagnosis). We used a landmark analysis and performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between opioid use and HE, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS:The cohort included 6451 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 23.3% and 4.7% had short-term and chronic opioid prescriptions respectively. Over the subsequent year, HE occurred in 6.3% patients with chronic opioid prescriptions, 5.0% with short-term opioid prescriptions and 3.3% with no opioid prescriptions. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of HE was observed with short-term (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and chronic opioid prescriptions (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.12) compared to no opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSION:In this national cohort of privately insured patients with cirrhosis, opioid prescriptions were associated with the risk of incident HE. Opioid use should be minimised in those with cirrhosis and, when required, limited to short duration.
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive fibrosis of the liver and is a major cause of liver-related mortality. Cirrhosis is partially heritable but genetic contributions to cirrhosis have not been systemically explored. Here, we carry out association analyses with cirrhosis in two large biobanks and determine the effects of cirrhosis associated variants on multiple human disease/traits. METHODS:We carried out a genome-wide association analysis of cirrhosis as a diagnosis in UK BioBank (UKBB; 1088 cases vs. 407 873 controls) and then tested top-associating loci for replication with cirrhosis in a hospital-based cohort from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI; 875 cases of cirrhosis vs. 30 346 controls). For replicating variants or variants previously associated with cirrhosis that also affected cirrhosis in UKBB or MGI, we determined single nucleotide polymorphism effects on all other diagnoses in UKBB (PheWAS), common metabolic traits/diseases and serum/plasma metabolites. RESULTS:Unbiased genome-wide association study identified variants in/near PNPLA3 and HFE, and candidate variant analysis identified variants in/near TM6SF2, MBOAT7, SERPINA1, HSD17B13, STAT4 and IFNL4 that reproducibly affected cirrhosis. Most affected liver enzyme concentrations and/or aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index. PheWAS, metabolic trait and serum/plasma metabolite association analyses revealed effects of these variants on lipid, inflammatory and other processes including new effects on many human diseases and traits. CONCLUSIONS:We identified eight loci that reproducibly associate with population-based cirrhosis and define their diverse effects on human diseases and traits.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In recent years, it has been postulated that the rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing, especially in nosocomial SBP patients. Aim of the present work was to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and three culture-positive patients between 2007 and 2014 were compared with 81 patients between 2015 and 2017, to study the change of microbiological profiles and their clinical consequences. The cirrhosis patients with bacterascites requiring treatment were included as well. RESULTS:The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ascites were Enterobacterales (31.6%) and in Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococci (22.8%). There was a significant increase in MDROs (22.3% ICU 40.7%, P = .048), accompanied by an increased incidence of sepsis (from 21.4% to 37.0%, P = .021), hepatorenal syndrome (from 40.8% to 58.0%, P = .007) and the need of catecholamine therapy (from 21.4% to 38.8%, P = .036). Nosocomial origin correlated with higher MDRO proportion, more complications and lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates in 12 commonly used antibiotics. MDROs were confirmed as an isolated predictor for inpatient mortality and complications in multivariable logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:The feeling in clinical practice that MDROs have increased in the last 11 years could be confirmed in our study in Munich, Germany. Nosocomial SBP correlated with significantly higher MDRO rates (nearly 50%) and complication rates. In our opinion, an antibiotic combination with comprehensive effect should be taken into account in nosocomial SBP patients in this region.