内源性白细胞介素 18 抑制小鼠肝切除术后的肝再生。
- 作者列表："Ma T","Zhang Y","Lao M","Chen W","Hu Q","Zhi X","Chen Z","Bai X","Dang X","Liang T
:The comprehensive role of interleukin (IL) 18 during liver regeneration is barely studied. Our aim is to evaluate the role of IL18 in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice. The expression profile of IL18 in the liver and the gut after 70% PH was measured. Liver samples after 70% and 85% PH from IL18 knockout (IL18-/- ) mice and wild type (WT) mice were collected for comparison of liver regeneration. The effect of recombinant IL18 on liver regeneration was tested in IL18-/- mice, and the utility of IL18 binding protein (BP) was also evaluated following 70% PH in WT mice. Expression levels of IL18 in the liver and the gut elevated after 70% PH. The liver weight/body weight ratios (LBWRs) after PH were significantly higher in IL18-/- mice than those in WT mice. Recombinant IL18 injection significantly decreased LBWR at 7 days after 70% PH in IL18-/- mice. The expression of cyclin D1, EdU labeling index, and Ki-67 proliferation index were much higher in IL18-/- mice than those in WT mice after 70% PH. The expression level of glypican 3 (GPC3) in WT mice significantly elevated during liver regeneration. In contrast, the expression level of GPC3 in IL18-/- mice remained roughly unchanged during liver regeneration. IL18BP injection significantly increased the LBWR at 7 days after 70% PH in WT mice. In conclusion, endogenous IL18 inhibited liver regeneration after PH in mice, possibly through up-regulating GPC3. IL18BP may be an effective agent to promote liver regeneration after PH.
: 白细胞介素 (IL) 18 在肝再生过程中的综合作用几乎没有研究。我们的目的是评价 IL18 在小鼠部分肝切除术 (PH) 后肝再生中的作用。测定 70% PH 后 IL18 在肝脏和肠道中的表达谱。收集 IL18 基因敲除 (IL18-/-) 小鼠和野生型 (WT) 小鼠 70% 和 85% PH 后的肝脏样本，用于比较肝再生。在 IL18-/-小鼠中测试了重组 IL18 对肝再生的影响，在 WT 小鼠中 70% PH 后也评估了 IL18 结合蛋白 (BP) 的效用。70% PH 后肝脏和肠道 IL18 的表达水平升高。PH 后 IL18-/-小鼠的肝重/体重比 (LBWRs) 显著高于 WT 小鼠。重组 IL18 注射在 IL18-/-小鼠 70% PH 后 7 天显著降低 LBWR。70% PH 后，IL18-/-小鼠 cyclin D1 、 EdU 标记指数和 Ki-67 增殖指数的表达明显高于 WT 小鼠。WT 小鼠肝再生过程中磷脂酰肌醇蛋白聚糖 3 (GPC3) 的表达水平显著升高。相比之下，IL18-/-小鼠在肝再生过程中 GPC3 的表达水平大致保持不变。IL18BP 注射显著增加了 WT 小鼠 70% PH 后 7 天的 LBWR。总之，内源性 IL18 抑制小鼠 PH 后的肝再生，可能通过上调 gpc3。IL18BP 可能是 PH 后促进肝再生的有效药剂。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Opioids are often prescribed for pain in cirrhosis and may increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIMS:To assess the association between opioids and HE in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:We used the IQVIA PharMetrics (Durham, NC) database to identify patients aged 18-64 years with cirrhosis. We excluded patients with any decompensation event from 1 year before cirrhosis diagnosis to 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis. Over the 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis, we determined the duration of continuous opioid use and classified use into short term (1-89 days) and chronic (90-180 days). We assessed whether patients developed HE over the subsequent year (ie 6-18 months after cirrhosis diagnosis). We used a landmark analysis and performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between opioid use and HE, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS:The cohort included 6451 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 23.3% and 4.7% had short-term and chronic opioid prescriptions respectively. Over the subsequent year, HE occurred in 6.3% patients with chronic opioid prescriptions, 5.0% with short-term opioid prescriptions and 3.3% with no opioid prescriptions. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of HE was observed with short-term (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and chronic opioid prescriptions (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.12) compared to no opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSION:In this national cohort of privately insured patients with cirrhosis, opioid prescriptions were associated with the risk of incident HE. Opioid use should be minimised in those with cirrhosis and, when required, limited to short duration.
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive fibrosis of the liver and is a major cause of liver-related mortality. Cirrhosis is partially heritable but genetic contributions to cirrhosis have not been systemically explored. Here, we carry out association analyses with cirrhosis in two large biobanks and determine the effects of cirrhosis associated variants on multiple human disease/traits. METHODS:We carried out a genome-wide association analysis of cirrhosis as a diagnosis in UK BioBank (UKBB; 1088 cases vs. 407 873 controls) and then tested top-associating loci for replication with cirrhosis in a hospital-based cohort from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI; 875 cases of cirrhosis vs. 30 346 controls). For replicating variants or variants previously associated with cirrhosis that also affected cirrhosis in UKBB or MGI, we determined single nucleotide polymorphism effects on all other diagnoses in UKBB (PheWAS), common metabolic traits/diseases and serum/plasma metabolites. RESULTS:Unbiased genome-wide association study identified variants in/near PNPLA3 and HFE, and candidate variant analysis identified variants in/near TM6SF2, MBOAT7, SERPINA1, HSD17B13, STAT4 and IFNL4 that reproducibly affected cirrhosis. Most affected liver enzyme concentrations and/or aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index. PheWAS, metabolic trait and serum/plasma metabolite association analyses revealed effects of these variants on lipid, inflammatory and other processes including new effects on many human diseases and traits. CONCLUSIONS:We identified eight loci that reproducibly associate with population-based cirrhosis and define their diverse effects on human diseases and traits.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In recent years, it has been postulated that the rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing, especially in nosocomial SBP patients. Aim of the present work was to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and three culture-positive patients between 2007 and 2014 were compared with 81 patients between 2015 and 2017, to study the change of microbiological profiles and their clinical consequences. The cirrhosis patients with bacterascites requiring treatment were included as well. RESULTS:The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ascites were Enterobacterales (31.6%) and in Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococci (22.8%). There was a significant increase in MDROs (22.3% ICU 40.7%, P = .048), accompanied by an increased incidence of sepsis (from 21.4% to 37.0%, P = .021), hepatorenal syndrome (from 40.8% to 58.0%, P = .007) and the need of catecholamine therapy (from 21.4% to 38.8%, P = .036). Nosocomial origin correlated with higher MDRO proportion, more complications and lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates in 12 commonly used antibiotics. MDROs were confirmed as an isolated predictor for inpatient mortality and complications in multivariable logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:The feeling in clinical practice that MDROs have increased in the last 11 years could be confirmed in our study in Munich, Germany. Nosocomial SBP correlated with significantly higher MDRO rates (nearly 50%) and complication rates. In our opinion, an antibiotic combination with comprehensive effect should be taken into account in nosocomial SBP patients in this region.