Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway confers airway protection against oxidative damage and attenuates inflammation in an allergic asthma model.
- 作者列表："Antunes GL","Silveira JS","Kaiber DB","Luft C","da Costa MS","Marques EP","Ferreira FS","Breda RV","Wyse ATS","Stein RT","Pitrez PM","da Cunha AA
:Asthma is characterized by the influx of inflammatory cells, especially of eosinophils as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, driven by the release of the T helper 2 (Th2)-cell-associated cytokines. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) inhibit cytokines production and controls inflammation. Thus, we investigated the effects of pharmacological activation of CAP by neostigmine on oxidative stress and airway inflammation in an allergic asthma model. After the OVA challenge, mice were treated with neostigmine. We showed that CAP activation by neostigmine reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-1β, and TNF-α), which resulted in a decrease of eosinophils influx. Furthermore, neostigmine also conferred airway protection against oxidative stress, attenuating ROS production through the increase of antioxidant defense, evidenced by the catalase (CAT) activity. We propose, for the first time, that pharmacological activation of the CAP can lead to new possibilities in the therapeutic management of allergic asthma.
: 哮喘的特征是炎症细胞的流入，特别是嗜酸性粒细胞以及活性氧 (ROS) 的产生，由辅助性 T 细胞 2 (Th2) 的释放驱动 -细胞相关细胞因子。胆碱能抗炎通路 (CAP) 抑制细胞因子的产生并控制炎症。因此，我们在过敏性哮喘模型中研究了新斯的明药理激活 CAP 对氧化应激和气道炎症的影响。OVA 激发后，小鼠用新斯的明治疗。我们发现新斯的明激活 CAP 可降低促炎细胞因子 (IL-4 、 IL-5 、 IL-13 、 il-1 β 和 TNF-α) 的水平，从而导致嗜酸性粒细胞内流减少。此外，新斯的明还赋予气道对氧化应激的保护作用，通过抗氧化防御的增加减弱 ROS 的产生，过氧化氢酶 (CAT) 活性证明了这一点。我们首次提出，CAP 的药理学激活可以为过敏性哮喘的治疗管理带来新的可能性。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.