- 作者列表："Corren J","Castro M","O'Riordan T","Hanania NA","Pavord ID","Quirce S","Chipps BE","Wenzel SE","Thangavelu K","Rice MS","Harel S","Jagerschmidt A","Khan AH","Kamat S","Maroni J","Rowe P","Lu Y","Amin N","Pirozzi G","Ruddy M","Graham NMH","Teper A
BACKGROUND:Dupilumab blocks the shared receptor component for IL-4 and IL-13, key drivers of type 2 inflammation, including IgE-mediated allergic inflammation in asthma. In the LIBERTY ASTHMA QUEST (NCT02414854) study, dupilumab reduced severe asthma exacerbations and improved forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in patients with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma with greater efficacy observed in patients with elevated type 2 inflammatory biomarkers (blood eosinophils and fractional exhaled nitric oxide) at baseline. OBJECTIVE:We assessed dupilumab's effect on key asthma outcomes in QUEST patients with/without evidence of allergic asthma (total serum IgE ≥30 IU/mL and ≥1 perennial aeroallergen-specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L at baseline). METHODS:Severe exacerbation rates and change from baseline in FEV1, asthma control, and markers of type 2 inflammation during the 52-week treatment period were assessed. RESULTS:In the allergic asthma subgroup (n = 1083), dupilumab 200/300 mg every 2 weeks versus placebo reduced severe asthma exacerbation rates (-36.9%/-45.5%; both P < .01), improved FEV1 at week 12 (0.13 L/0.16 L; both P < .001; improvements were evident by the first evaluation at week 2) with greater efficacy observed in patients with elevated type 2 inflammatory biomarkers at baseline, and improved asthma control. Dupilumab treatment also resulted in rapid and sustained reductions in type 2 inflammatory biomarkers. Comparable results were observed in patients without evidence of allergic asthma (n = 819). CONCLUSION:Dupilumab reduced severe exacerbation rates, improved FEV1 and asthma control, and suppressed type 2 inflammatory biomarkers in patients with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma with or without evidence of allergic asthma, highlighting the key role of IL-4 and IL-13 in airway inflammation.
背景: Dupilumab 阻断 IL-4 和 IL-13 的共同受体成分，这是 2 型炎症的关键驱动因素，包括哮喘中 IgE 介导的过敏性炎症。在 LIBERTY 哮喘 QUEST (NCT02414854) 研究中，dupilumab 减少了严重哮喘恶化，改善了未控制患者的 1 秒用力呼气容积 (FEV1), 在基线时 2 型炎症生物标志物 (血嗜酸性粒细胞和呼出气一氧化氮) 升高的患者中观察到疗效更高的中重度哮喘。 目标: 我们在有/无过敏性哮喘证据的 QUEST 患者中评估了 dupilumab 对关键哮喘结局的影响 (血清总 IgE ≥ 30 IU/mL 和 ≥ 1 个常年性空气过敏原特异性 IgE ≥ 0.35 kU/ L 在基线)。 方法: 在 52 周的治疗期间，评估严重恶化率和 FEV1 、哮喘控制和 2 型炎症标志物较基线的变化。 结果: 在过敏性哮喘亚组 (n = 1083) 中，dupilumab 每 2 周 200/300 mg 与安慰剂相比降低了重度哮喘恶化率 (-36.9%/-45.5%; 均 P
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.