- 作者列表："Flashner BM","Rifas-Shiman SL","Oken E","Camargo CA","Platts-Mills TJ","Workman L","Litonjua AA","Gold DR","Rice MB
:Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a marker of airway inflammation that is well-characterized in allergic disease states. However, FeNO is also involved in nonallergic inflammatory and pulmonary vascular mechanisms or responses to environmental stimuli. We sought to determine the extent to which obesity or sedentary lifestyle is associated with FeNO in adolescents not selected on the basis of allergic disease. In Project Viva, a prebirth cohort study, we measured body mass index (BMI), skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, body fat, hours watching television, hours of physical activity, and heart rate after exercise among 929 adolescents (median age, 12.9). We measured FeNO twice and averaged these as a continuous, log-transformed outcome. We performed linear regression models, adjusted for child age, sex, height, and race/ethnicity, maternal education and smoking during pregnancy, household income and smoking, and neighbourhood characteristics. In secondary analysis, we additionally adjusted for asthma. More than 2 hours spent watching TV was associated with 10% lower FeNO (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20, 0%). Higher body fat percentage was also associated with lower FeNO. After additional adjustment for asthma, teens who are underweight (BMI <5th %tile, 3%) had 22% lower FeNO (95%CI: -40, 2%) and teens who are overweight (BMI ≥85th %ile, 28%) had 13% lower FeNO (95%CI: -23, -2%). Each of these associations of lifestyle and body weight with lower FeNO were greater in magnitude after adjusting for asthma. In summary, sedentary lifestyle, high and low BMI were all associated with lower FeNO in this adolescent cohort.
: 呼出气一氧化氮 (FeNO) 是气道炎症的标志物，在过敏性疾病状态下具有良好的特征。然而，FeNO 也参与非过敏性炎症和肺血管机制或对环境刺激的反应。我们试图确定未根据过敏性疾病选择的青少年中肥胖或久坐生活方式与 FeNO 相关的程度。在 Project Viva，一项出生前队列研究中，我们测量了体重指数 (BMI) 、皮褶厚度、腰围、体脂、看电视时间、体力活动时间、 929 名青少年运动后心率 (中位年龄 12.9)。我们测量了 FeNO 两次，并将其取平均值作为连续的对数转换结果。我们进行了线性回归模型，校正了儿童年龄、性别、身高和种族/民族、母亲教育和孕期吸烟、家庭收入和吸烟以及邻里特征。在二次分析中，我们额外调整了哮喘。看电视超过 2 小时与 FeNO 降低 10% 相关 (95% 置信区间 [CI]:-0%)。较高的体脂百分比也与较低的 FeNO 相关。在额外调整哮喘后，体重不足的青少年 (BMI
METHODS:Maintaining adequate daily protein intake is important to maintain muscle mass throughout the lifespan. In this regard, the overnight period has been identified as a window of opportunity to increase protein intake in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether pre-sleep protein intake affects next-morning appetite and, consequently, protein intake. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a pre-sleep protein drink on next-morning appetite, energy intake and metabolism. Twelve older individuals (eight males, four females; age: 71.3 ± 4.2 years) took part in a single-blind randomised cross-over study. After a standardised dinner, participants consumed either a 40-g protein drink, isocaloric maltodextrin drink, or placebo water control before bedtime. Next-morning appetite, energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory exchange rate (RER), and plasma acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose, and insulin concentrations were assessed. No between-group differences were observed for appetite and energy intake at breakfast. Furthermore, RMR, RER, and assessed blood markers were not significantly different between any of the treatment groups. Pre-sleep protein intake does not affect next-morning appetite and energy intake and is therefore a viable strategy to increase daily protein intake in an older population.
METHODS:Leptin (LEP) regulates glucose metabolism and energy storage in the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with the upregulation of serum LEP. LEP promoter methylation is associated with obesity. So far, few studies have explored the association of BMI and OA with LEP methylation. We assessed the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and OA on LEP promoter methylation. Data of 1114 participants comprising 583 men and 558 women, aged 30−70 years were retrieved from the Taiwan Biobank Database (2008−2015). Osteoarthritis was self-reported and cases were those who reported having ever been clinically diagnosed with osteoarthritis. BMI was categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity. The mean LEP promoter methylation level in individuals with osteoarthritis was 0.5509 ± 0.00437 and 0.5375 ± 0.00101 in those without osteoarthritis. The interaction between osteoarthritis and BMI on LEP promoter methylation was significant (p-value = 0.0180). With normal BMI as the reference, the mean LEP promoter methylation level was significantly higher in obese osteoarthritic individuals (β = 0.03696, p-value = 0.0187). However, there was no significant association between BMI and LEP promoter methylation in individuals without osteoarthritis, regardless of BMI. In conclusion, only obesity was significantly associated with LEP promoter methylation (higher levels) specifically in osteoarthritic patients.
METHODS:Background For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage, a higher liver fat content and a more adverse metabolic profile than whites. South Asians may have a lower fat oxidation than whites, which could result in an unfavorable metabolic profile when exposed to increased high-fat foods consumption and decreased physical activity as in current modern lifestyle. Objective To determine substrate partitioning, liver fat accumulation and metabolic profile in South Asian and white men in response to overfeeding with high-fat diet under sedentary conditions in a respiration chamber. Design Ten South Asian men (BMI, 18–29 kg/m^2) and 10 white men (BMI, 22–33 kg/m^2), matched for body fat percentage, aged 20–40 year were included. A weight maintenance diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was given for 3 days. Thereafter, a baseline measurement of liver fat content (1H-MRS) and blood parameters was performed. Subsequently, subjects were overfed (150% energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60% fat, 25% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) over 3 consecutive days while staying in a respiration chamber mimicking a sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 3 × 24-h. Liver fat and blood parameters were measured again after the subjects left the chamber. Results The 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.30). Overfeeding increased liver fat content ( P = 0.02), but the increase did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.64). In South Asians, overfeeding tended to increase LDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.08), tended to decrease glucose clearance ( P = 0.06) and tended to elevate insulin response ( P = 0.07) slightly more than whites. Conclusions Despite a similar substrate partitioning and similar accretion of liver fat, overfeeding with high-fat under sedentary conditions tended to have more adverse effects on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in South Asians.