Scrophularia buergeriana attenuates allergic inflammation by reducing NF-κB activation.
补骨草通过减少 NF-κ b 活化减轻过敏性炎症。
- 作者列表："Shin NR","Lee AY","Song JH","Yang S","Park I","Lim JO","Jung TY","Ko JW","Kim JC","Lim KS","Lee MY","Shin IS","Kim JS
BACKGROUND:Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. (Scrophulariaceae) (SB) has been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as neuritis and pharyngolaryngitis. PURPOSE:We explored the therapeutic effects of S. buergeriana ethanol extract (SBE) on airway inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. METHODS:Mice were intraperitoneally injected with OVA on days 0 and 14 to elevate the immune response. On days 21 to 23, the mice were challenged with OVA solution and SBE (20 and 40 mg/kg) was administered daily by oral gavage from days 18 to 23. RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SBE 1 h before LPS stimulation. RESULTS:SBE administration effectively suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration, the expression of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, and IL-17, immunoglobulin E, and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-induced allergic asthma model. A reduction in histological alterations, including airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion, was observed. These effects of SBE were accompanied by a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation. These responses were observed in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. SBE treatment reduced the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and MMP-9, and NF-κB phosphorylation, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CONCLUSION:Our results indicated that SBE effectively attenuated airway inflammation in an OVA-induced allergic asthma model. These properties of SBE were thought to be involved in the suppression of NF-κB phosphorylation, suggesting that the material has the potential to regulate the development of allergic asthma.
背景: 补骨草。(玄参科) (SB) 已作为东方医学用于治疗炎症性疾病，如神经炎和咽喉炎。 目的: 我们探讨了 buergeriana 乙醇提取物 (SBE) 对卵清蛋白 (OVA) 诱导的哮喘小鼠和脂多糖 (LPS) 刺激的 RAW264.7 细胞气道炎症的治疗作用。 方法: 在第 0 天和第 14 天，小鼠腹腔注射 OVA 以提高免疫反应。第 21-23 天，用 OVA 溶液攻击小鼠，第 18-23 天每天口服灌胃给予 SBE (20 和 40 mg/kg)。RAW264.7 细胞在 LPS 刺激前 1 h 用 SBE 预处理。 结果: 在 OVA 诱导的过敏性哮喘模型中，SBE 能有效抑制炎症细胞浸润、白细胞介素 (IL)-5 、 IL-13 和 IL-17 的表达、免疫球蛋白 E 和气道高反应性。观察到组织学改变减少，包括气道炎症和黏液高分泌。SBE 的这些作用伴随着基质 metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) 表达和核因子 κ B (NF-κ B) 磷酸化的减少。在 LPS 刺激的 RAW264.7 细胞中观察到这些反应。SBE 处理降低了 LPS 刺激的 RAW264.7 细胞中肿瘤坏死因子 (TNF)-α 、 IL-6 和 MMP-9 的 mRNA 表达以及 NF-κ b 磷酸化。 结论: 我们的研究结果表明，SBE 有效地减轻了 OVA 诱导的过敏性哮喘模型的气道炎症。SBE 的这些特性被认为参与抑制 NF-κ b 磷酸化，提示该物质具有调节过敏性哮喘发展的潜力。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.