Differential unfolded protein response in skeletal muscle from non-diabetic glucose tolerant or intolerant patients with obesity before and after bariatric surgery.
- 作者列表："Marciniak C","Duhem C","Boulinguiez A","Raverdy V","Baud G","Verkindt H","Caiazzo R","Staels B","Duez H","Pattou F","Lancel S
AIMS:Not all people with obesity become glucose intolerant, suggesting differential activation of cellular pathways. The unfolded protein response (UPR) may contribute to the development of insulin resistance in several organs, but its role in skeletal muscle remains debated. Therefore, we explored the UPR activation in muscle from non-diabetic glucose tolerant or intolerant patients with obesity and the impact of bariatric procedures. METHODS:Muscle biopsies from 22 normoglycemic (NG, blood glucose measured 120 min after an oral glucose tolerance test, G120 < 7.8 mM) and 22 glucose intolerant (GI, G120 between 7.8 and 11.1 mM) patients with obesity were used to measure UPR activation by RTqPCR and western blot. Then, UPR was studied in biopsies from 7 NG and 7 GI patients before and 1 year after bariatric surgery. RESULTS:Binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP) protein was ~ 40% higher in the GI compared to NG subjects. Contrastingly, expression of the UPR-related genes BIP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and unspliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1u) were significantly lower and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) tended to decrease (p = 0.08) in GI individuals. While BIP protein positively correlated with fasting blood glucose (r = 0.38, p = 0.01), ATF6 and CHOP were associated with G120 (r = - 0.38 and r = - 0.41, p < 0.05) and the Matsuda index (r = 0.37 and r = 0.38, p < 0.05). Bariatric surgery improved metabolic parameters, associated with higher CHOP expression in GI patients, while ATF6 tended to increase (p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS:CHOP and ATF6 expression decreased in non-diabetic GI patients with obesity and was modified by bariatric surgery. These genes may contribute to glucose homeostasis in human skeletal muscle.
目的: 并非所有肥胖者都不能耐受葡萄糖，提示细胞通路的不同激活。未折叠蛋白反应 (UPR) 可能有助于几个器官的胰岛素抵抗的发展，但其在骨骼肌中的作用仍存在争议。因此，我们探讨了非糖尿病糖耐量或不耐受肥胖患者肌肉中的 UPR 激活以及减肥手术的影响。 方法: 22 例血糖正常的肌肉活检 (NG，口服葡萄糖耐量试验后 120 min 测定血糖，G120
METHODS:Maintaining adequate daily protein intake is important to maintain muscle mass throughout the lifespan. In this regard, the overnight period has been identified as a window of opportunity to increase protein intake in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether pre-sleep protein intake affects next-morning appetite and, consequently, protein intake. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a pre-sleep protein drink on next-morning appetite, energy intake and metabolism. Twelve older individuals (eight males, four females; age: 71.3 ± 4.2 years) took part in a single-blind randomised cross-over study. After a standardised dinner, participants consumed either a 40-g protein drink, isocaloric maltodextrin drink, or placebo water control before bedtime. Next-morning appetite, energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory exchange rate (RER), and plasma acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose, and insulin concentrations were assessed. No between-group differences were observed for appetite and energy intake at breakfast. Furthermore, RMR, RER, and assessed blood markers were not significantly different between any of the treatment groups. Pre-sleep protein intake does not affect next-morning appetite and energy intake and is therefore a viable strategy to increase daily protein intake in an older population.
METHODS:Leptin (LEP) regulates glucose metabolism and energy storage in the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with the upregulation of serum LEP. LEP promoter methylation is associated with obesity. So far, few studies have explored the association of BMI and OA with LEP methylation. We assessed the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and OA on LEP promoter methylation. Data of 1114 participants comprising 583 men and 558 women, aged 30−70 years were retrieved from the Taiwan Biobank Database (2008−2015). Osteoarthritis was self-reported and cases were those who reported having ever been clinically diagnosed with osteoarthritis. BMI was categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity. The mean LEP promoter methylation level in individuals with osteoarthritis was 0.5509 ± 0.00437 and 0.5375 ± 0.00101 in those without osteoarthritis. The interaction between osteoarthritis and BMI on LEP promoter methylation was significant (p-value = 0.0180). With normal BMI as the reference, the mean LEP promoter methylation level was significantly higher in obese osteoarthritic individuals (β = 0.03696, p-value = 0.0187). However, there was no significant association between BMI and LEP promoter methylation in individuals without osteoarthritis, regardless of BMI. In conclusion, only obesity was significantly associated with LEP promoter methylation (higher levels) specifically in osteoarthritic patients.
METHODS:Background For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage, a higher liver fat content and a more adverse metabolic profile than whites. South Asians may have a lower fat oxidation than whites, which could result in an unfavorable metabolic profile when exposed to increased high-fat foods consumption and decreased physical activity as in current modern lifestyle. Objective To determine substrate partitioning, liver fat accumulation and metabolic profile in South Asian and white men in response to overfeeding with high-fat diet under sedentary conditions in a respiration chamber. Design Ten South Asian men (BMI, 18–29 kg/m^2) and 10 white men (BMI, 22–33 kg/m^2), matched for body fat percentage, aged 20–40 year were included. A weight maintenance diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was given for 3 days. Thereafter, a baseline measurement of liver fat content (1H-MRS) and blood parameters was performed. Subsequently, subjects were overfed (150% energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60% fat, 25% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) over 3 consecutive days while staying in a respiration chamber mimicking a sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 3 × 24-h. Liver fat and blood parameters were measured again after the subjects left the chamber. Results The 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.30). Overfeeding increased liver fat content ( P = 0.02), but the increase did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.64). In South Asians, overfeeding tended to increase LDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.08), tended to decrease glucose clearance ( P = 0.06) and tended to elevate insulin response ( P = 0.07) slightly more than whites. Conclusions Despite a similar substrate partitioning and similar accretion of liver fat, overfeeding with high-fat under sedentary conditions tended to have more adverse effects on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in South Asians.