The associations between some biological markers, obesity, and cardiovascular risk in Slovenian children and adolescents.
- 作者列表："Varda NM","Medved M","Ojsteršek L
INTRODUCTION:The occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders steadily increases with the body mass index (BMI). Since the latter is not the best and earliest indicator of obesity and cardiovascular risk, the aim of the study was to evaluate some potential biological markers that would allow us to detect children and adolescents at higher risk at an early stage. METHODS:A sample of 330 children and adolescents were included in the study and divided into four groups: obese patients with hypertension, normal-weight patients with hypertension, patients with mildly elevated lipids and a control group of healthy children and adolescents. Some clinical parameters (age, body weight, body height, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure), biochemical parameters (glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A1, homocysteine) and biological markers of obesity (ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin) were evaluated. RESULTS:Ghrelin and adiponectin were found to have a strong negative statistically significant correlation with BMI in all three observed groups (p < 0.001), but not in the control group (p = 0.053 and p = 0.316, respectively). In addition, leptin had a strong positive statistically significant correlation with BMI in all four groups (p < 0.001 for the research groups, p = 0.009 for the controls). In the group of obese patients with hypertension, statistically significant differences in all three markers of obesity were found in comparison to the control group (p < 0.001 for all markers). In the group of patients with mildly elevated lipids, ghrelin and leptin were significantly different (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). In the group of normal-weight hypertensive patients, only values of ghrelin were different compared to the control group (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION:In the research groups, significant differences were found in clinical, biochemical and biological parameters compared to the control group. The observed biological markers of obesity are useful early markers for identifying groups of patients that are at cardiovascular risk.
引言: 心血管疾病和代谢紊乱的发生随着体重指数 (BMI) 的增加而稳步增加。由于后者不是肥胖和心血管风险的最好和最早的指标, 这项研究的目的是评估一些潜在的生物标志物，使我们能够在早期发现高危儿童和青少年。 方法: 将 330 名儿童和青少年纳入研究，分为四组: 肥胖高血压患者、正常体重高血压患者、血脂轻度升高的患者和健康儿童和青少年的对照组。一些临床参数 (年龄，体重，身高，BMI，腰围，臀围，血压)，生化参数 (葡萄糖，总胆固醇，甘油三酯，HDL，LDL, 载脂蛋白 A1 、同型半胱氨酸) 和肥胖生物学标志物 (ghrelin 、脂联素、瘦素) 进行评价。 结果: 在所有三个观察组中，发现 Ghrelin 和脂联素与 BMI 有很强的负相关 (p
METHODS:Maintaining adequate daily protein intake is important to maintain muscle mass throughout the lifespan. In this regard, the overnight period has been identified as a window of opportunity to increase protein intake in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether pre-sleep protein intake affects next-morning appetite and, consequently, protein intake. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a pre-sleep protein drink on next-morning appetite, energy intake and metabolism. Twelve older individuals (eight males, four females; age: 71.3 ± 4.2 years) took part in a single-blind randomised cross-over study. After a standardised dinner, participants consumed either a 40-g protein drink, isocaloric maltodextrin drink, or placebo water control before bedtime. Next-morning appetite, energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory exchange rate (RER), and plasma acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose, and insulin concentrations were assessed. No between-group differences were observed for appetite and energy intake at breakfast. Furthermore, RMR, RER, and assessed blood markers were not significantly different between any of the treatment groups. Pre-sleep protein intake does not affect next-morning appetite and energy intake and is therefore a viable strategy to increase daily protein intake in an older population.
METHODS:Leptin (LEP) regulates glucose metabolism and energy storage in the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with the upregulation of serum LEP. LEP promoter methylation is associated with obesity. So far, few studies have explored the association of BMI and OA with LEP methylation. We assessed the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and OA on LEP promoter methylation. Data of 1114 participants comprising 583 men and 558 women, aged 30−70 years were retrieved from the Taiwan Biobank Database (2008−2015). Osteoarthritis was self-reported and cases were those who reported having ever been clinically diagnosed with osteoarthritis. BMI was categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity. The mean LEP promoter methylation level in individuals with osteoarthritis was 0.5509 ± 0.00437 and 0.5375 ± 0.00101 in those without osteoarthritis. The interaction between osteoarthritis and BMI on LEP promoter methylation was significant (p-value = 0.0180). With normal BMI as the reference, the mean LEP promoter methylation level was significantly higher in obese osteoarthritic individuals (β = 0.03696, p-value = 0.0187). However, there was no significant association between BMI and LEP promoter methylation in individuals without osteoarthritis, regardless of BMI. In conclusion, only obesity was significantly associated with LEP promoter methylation (higher levels) specifically in osteoarthritic patients.
METHODS:Background For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage, a higher liver fat content and a more adverse metabolic profile than whites. South Asians may have a lower fat oxidation than whites, which could result in an unfavorable metabolic profile when exposed to increased high-fat foods consumption and decreased physical activity as in current modern lifestyle. Objective To determine substrate partitioning, liver fat accumulation and metabolic profile in South Asian and white men in response to overfeeding with high-fat diet under sedentary conditions in a respiration chamber. Design Ten South Asian men (BMI, 18–29 kg/m^2) and 10 white men (BMI, 22–33 kg/m^2), matched for body fat percentage, aged 20–40 year were included. A weight maintenance diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was given for 3 days. Thereafter, a baseline measurement of liver fat content (1H-MRS) and blood parameters was performed. Subsequently, subjects were overfed (150% energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60% fat, 25% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) over 3 consecutive days while staying in a respiration chamber mimicking a sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 3 × 24-h. Liver fat and blood parameters were measured again after the subjects left the chamber. Results The 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.30). Overfeeding increased liver fat content ( P = 0.02), but the increase did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.64). In South Asians, overfeeding tended to increase LDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.08), tended to decrease glucose clearance ( P = 0.06) and tended to elevate insulin response ( P = 0.07) slightly more than whites. Conclusions Despite a similar substrate partitioning and similar accretion of liver fat, overfeeding with high-fat under sedentary conditions tended to have more adverse effects on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in South Asians.