A more pronounced effect of type III resistant starch vs. type II resistant starch on ameliorating hyperlipidemia in high fat diet-fed mice is associated with its supramolecular structural characteristics.
III 型抗性淀粉与 II 型抗性淀粉改善高脂饮食喂养小鼠高脂血症的更明显作用与其超分子结构特征有关。
- 作者列表："Xu J","Ma Z","Li X","Liu L","Hu X
:The anti-obesity effects of two categories of resistant starch (RS) including RS2 (isolated from untreated lentil starch, URS) and RS3 (isolated from autoclaved and retrograded lentil starch, ARS) on mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and the supramolecular structure-in vivo physiological functionality relationship of RS were investigated. Following 6 consecutive weeks, the obese mice in the two RS administered groups displayed suppression of body/liver weight gain and an improvement in serum glucose/lipid profile, antioxidant status, and gut microbiota structure. Compared with the URS intervention group, the ARS administration resulted in a more pronounced effect in controlling body weight, together with a more prominent reduction in blood glucose and triglyceride concentration, as well as a significant increase in the HDL-c level in obese mice. The ARS group also showed an absolute advantage over URS in suppressing the oxidative stress and regulating the liver function induced by the HF diet. Simultaneously, the administration of URS and ARS efficiently suppressed the HF-diet induced alterations in gut microbial ecology, with an obviously decreased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, especially for the ARS group, suggesting its beneficial role in gastrointestinal tract health. The structural characterization results revealed that ARS and URS differed significantly in their supramolecular structural characteristics, where ARS exhibited a higher proportion of crystallinity and double helix content with an X-ray diffraction pattern of a CB type crystal polymorph and a low proportion of molecular inhomogeneity. This study suggested that the difference in the anti-obesity effect of resistant starches was a consequence of the diversity in their structural features.
: 两类抗性淀粉 (RS) 的抗肥胖作用包括 RS2 (分离自未处理的扁豆淀粉，URS) 和 RS3 (分离自高压灭菌和反压扁豆淀粉，ARS) 研究了高脂 (HF) 饮食诱导的肥胖小鼠的超分子结构与 RS 的体内生理功能关系。连续 6 周后，两个 RS 给药组中的肥胖小鼠表现出身体/肝脏体重增加的抑制和血清葡萄糖/脂质谱、抗氧化状态和肠道菌群结构的改善。与 URS 干预组相比，ARS 给药控制体重的效果更明显，同时血糖和甘油三酯浓度降低更明显, 以及肥胖小鼠 HDL-c 水平显著升高。ARS 组在抑制 HF 饮食诱导的氧化应激和调节肝功能方面也显示出绝对优势。同时，URS 和 ARS 的给药有效地抑制了 HF-饮食诱导的肠道微生物生态学的改变，Firmicutes 与拟杆菌的比例明显降低，特别是对于 ARS 组, 提示其在胃肠道健康中的有益作用。结构表征结果表明，ARS 和 URS 的超分子结构特征差异显著, 其中 ARS 表现出较高比例的结晶度和双螺旋含量，具有 CB 型晶体多晶型的 X 射线衍射图和较低比例的分子不均匀性。本研究表明，抗性淀粉抗肥胖作用的差异是其结构特征多样性的结果。
METHODS:Maintaining adequate daily protein intake is important to maintain muscle mass throughout the lifespan. In this regard, the overnight period has been identified as a window of opportunity to increase protein intake in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether pre-sleep protein intake affects next-morning appetite and, consequently, protein intake. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a pre-sleep protein drink on next-morning appetite, energy intake and metabolism. Twelve older individuals (eight males, four females; age: 71.3 ± 4.2 years) took part in a single-blind randomised cross-over study. After a standardised dinner, participants consumed either a 40-g protein drink, isocaloric maltodextrin drink, or placebo water control before bedtime. Next-morning appetite, energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory exchange rate (RER), and plasma acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose, and insulin concentrations were assessed. No between-group differences were observed for appetite and energy intake at breakfast. Furthermore, RMR, RER, and assessed blood markers were not significantly different between any of the treatment groups. Pre-sleep protein intake does not affect next-morning appetite and energy intake and is therefore a viable strategy to increase daily protein intake in an older population.
METHODS:Leptin (LEP) regulates glucose metabolism and energy storage in the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with the upregulation of serum LEP. LEP promoter methylation is associated with obesity. So far, few studies have explored the association of BMI and OA with LEP methylation. We assessed the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and OA on LEP promoter methylation. Data of 1114 participants comprising 583 men and 558 women, aged 30−70 years were retrieved from the Taiwan Biobank Database (2008−2015). Osteoarthritis was self-reported and cases were those who reported having ever been clinically diagnosed with osteoarthritis. BMI was categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity. The mean LEP promoter methylation level in individuals with osteoarthritis was 0.5509 ± 0.00437 and 0.5375 ± 0.00101 in those without osteoarthritis. The interaction between osteoarthritis and BMI on LEP promoter methylation was significant (p-value = 0.0180). With normal BMI as the reference, the mean LEP promoter methylation level was significantly higher in obese osteoarthritic individuals (β = 0.03696, p-value = 0.0187). However, there was no significant association between BMI and LEP promoter methylation in individuals without osteoarthritis, regardless of BMI. In conclusion, only obesity was significantly associated with LEP promoter methylation (higher levels) specifically in osteoarthritic patients.
METHODS:Background For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage, a higher liver fat content and a more adverse metabolic profile than whites. South Asians may have a lower fat oxidation than whites, which could result in an unfavorable metabolic profile when exposed to increased high-fat foods consumption and decreased physical activity as in current modern lifestyle. Objective To determine substrate partitioning, liver fat accumulation and metabolic profile in South Asian and white men in response to overfeeding with high-fat diet under sedentary conditions in a respiration chamber. Design Ten South Asian men (BMI, 18–29 kg/m^2) and 10 white men (BMI, 22–33 kg/m^2), matched for body fat percentage, aged 20–40 year were included. A weight maintenance diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was given for 3 days. Thereafter, a baseline measurement of liver fat content (1H-MRS) and blood parameters was performed. Subsequently, subjects were overfed (150% energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60% fat, 25% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) over 3 consecutive days while staying in a respiration chamber mimicking a sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 3 × 24-h. Liver fat and blood parameters were measured again after the subjects left the chamber. Results The 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.30). Overfeeding increased liver fat content ( P = 0.02), but the increase did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.64). In South Asians, overfeeding tended to increase LDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.08), tended to decrease glucose clearance ( P = 0.06) and tended to elevate insulin response ( P = 0.07) slightly more than whites. Conclusions Despite a similar substrate partitioning and similar accretion of liver fat, overfeeding with high-fat under sedentary conditions tended to have more adverse effects on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in South Asians.