Effect of Different Exercise Loads on Testicular Oxidative Stress and Reproductive Function in Obese Male Mice.
- 作者列表："Yi X","Tang D","Cao S","Li T","Gao H","Ma T","Yao T","Li J","Chang B
:This study is aimed at investigating the effect of different exercise loads on the reproductive function of obese male mice and the underlying mechanisms. Male mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity were divided into obesity control (OC), obesity moderate-load exercise (OME), and obesity high-load exercise (OHE) groups. The OME and OHE groups were subjected to swimming exercise 5 days per week over a duration of 8 weeks, with the exercise load progressively increased to 2 h per day in the OME group and 2 h twice per day in the OHE group. In the OC group mice without exercise regimen, we observed a decrease in mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, increase in free radical products, upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor-κB and proinflammatory cytokines, inhibition of mRNA and protein expression of testosterone synthases, decrease in the serum testosterone level and sperm quality, and increase in sperm apoptosis. Although both moderate-load exercise and high-load exercise reduced body fat, only moderate-load exercise effectively alleviated obesity-induced oxidative stress, downregulated the expression of nuclear factor-κB and proinflammatory cytokines, and reversed the decrease in mRNA and protein expression of testosterone synthases, serum testosterone level, and sperm quality. These changes were not observed in the OHE group mice. Obesity-induced testicular oxidative stress and inflammatory response decreased testosterone synthesis and sperm quality. Moderate-load exercise alleviated the negative effect of obesity on male reproductive function by decreasing testicular oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Although high-load exercise effectively reduced body fat, its effects on alleviating oxidative stress and improving male reproductive function were limited.
: 本研究旨在探讨不同运动负荷对肥胖雄性小鼠生殖功能的影响及其机制。将高脂饮食诱导肥胖的雄性小鼠分为肥胖对照 (OC) 、肥胖中等负荷运动 (OME) 、肥胖高负荷运动 (OHE) 组。OME 组和 OHE 组每周进行游泳运动 5 天，持续时间为 8 周, 随着运动负荷逐渐增加，OME 组每天 2 h，OHE 组每天 2 h。在没有运动方案的 OC 组小鼠中，我们观察到抗氧化酶 mRNA 表达降低，自由基产物增加, 上调核因子-κ b 和促炎细胞因子的 mRNA 和蛋白表达，抑制睾酮合成酶的 mRNA 和蛋白表达，降低血清睾酮水平和精子质量,精子凋亡增加。虽然中等负荷运动和高负荷运动都减少了体脂，但只有中等负荷运动有效缓解了肥胖诱导的氧化应激，下调了核因子-κ b 和促炎细胞因子的表达, 并逆转了睾酮合成酶 mRNA 和蛋白表达、血清睾酮水平和精子质量的下降。OHE 组小鼠未观察到这些变化。肥胖引起的睾丸氧化应激和炎症反应降低睾酮合成和精子质量。中等负荷运动通过降低睾丸氧化应激和炎症反应减轻肥胖对男性生殖功能的负面影响。虽然高负荷运动有效地降低了体脂，但其减轻氧化应激和改善男性生殖功能的作用有限。
METHODS:Maintaining adequate daily protein intake is important to maintain muscle mass throughout the lifespan. In this regard, the overnight period has been identified as a window of opportunity to increase protein intake in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether pre-sleep protein intake affects next-morning appetite and, consequently, protein intake. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a pre-sleep protein drink on next-morning appetite, energy intake and metabolism. Twelve older individuals (eight males, four females; age: 71.3 ± 4.2 years) took part in a single-blind randomised cross-over study. After a standardised dinner, participants consumed either a 40-g protein drink, isocaloric maltodextrin drink, or placebo water control before bedtime. Next-morning appetite, energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory exchange rate (RER), and plasma acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose, and insulin concentrations were assessed. No between-group differences were observed for appetite and energy intake at breakfast. Furthermore, RMR, RER, and assessed blood markers were not significantly different between any of the treatment groups. Pre-sleep protein intake does not affect next-morning appetite and energy intake and is therefore a viable strategy to increase daily protein intake in an older population.
METHODS:Leptin (LEP) regulates glucose metabolism and energy storage in the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with the upregulation of serum LEP. LEP promoter methylation is associated with obesity. So far, few studies have explored the association of BMI and OA with LEP methylation. We assessed the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and OA on LEP promoter methylation. Data of 1114 participants comprising 583 men and 558 women, aged 30−70 years were retrieved from the Taiwan Biobank Database (2008−2015). Osteoarthritis was self-reported and cases were those who reported having ever been clinically diagnosed with osteoarthritis. BMI was categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity. The mean LEP promoter methylation level in individuals with osteoarthritis was 0.5509 ± 0.00437 and 0.5375 ± 0.00101 in those without osteoarthritis. The interaction between osteoarthritis and BMI on LEP promoter methylation was significant (p-value = 0.0180). With normal BMI as the reference, the mean LEP promoter methylation level was significantly higher in obese osteoarthritic individuals (β = 0.03696, p-value = 0.0187). However, there was no significant association between BMI and LEP promoter methylation in individuals without osteoarthritis, regardless of BMI. In conclusion, only obesity was significantly associated with LEP promoter methylation (higher levels) specifically in osteoarthritic patients.
METHODS:Background For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage, a higher liver fat content and a more adverse metabolic profile than whites. South Asians may have a lower fat oxidation than whites, which could result in an unfavorable metabolic profile when exposed to increased high-fat foods consumption and decreased physical activity as in current modern lifestyle. Objective To determine substrate partitioning, liver fat accumulation and metabolic profile in South Asian and white men in response to overfeeding with high-fat diet under sedentary conditions in a respiration chamber. Design Ten South Asian men (BMI, 18–29 kg/m^2) and 10 white men (BMI, 22–33 kg/m^2), matched for body fat percentage, aged 20–40 year were included. A weight maintenance diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was given for 3 days. Thereafter, a baseline measurement of liver fat content (1H-MRS) and blood parameters was performed. Subsequently, subjects were overfed (150% energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60% fat, 25% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) over 3 consecutive days while staying in a respiration chamber mimicking a sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 3 × 24-h. Liver fat and blood parameters were measured again after the subjects left the chamber. Results The 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.30). Overfeeding increased liver fat content ( P = 0.02), but the increase did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.64). In South Asians, overfeeding tended to increase LDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.08), tended to decrease glucose clearance ( P = 0.06) and tended to elevate insulin response ( P = 0.07) slightly more than whites. Conclusions Despite a similar substrate partitioning and similar accretion of liver fat, overfeeding with high-fat under sedentary conditions tended to have more adverse effects on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in South Asians.